Table 1—

Adjusted ORs of metabolic syndrome and its components according to current smoking amounts

NilEx-smokerCigarettes/day
P for trend
1–910–1920–2930–39≥40
Abdominal obesity11.01 (0.75–1.37)0.70 (0.43–1.14)0.71 (0.52–0.96)1.03 (0.78–1.36)1.25 (0.76–2.07)1.54 (0.92–2.56)0.465
High blood pressure11.13 (0.88–1.47)0.92 (0.63–1.35)1.02 (0.80–1.30)1.02 (0.81–1.29)1.25 (0.81–1.94)1.33 (0.83–2.12)0.605
High triglycerides11.37 (1.06–1.78)1.05 (0.72–1.54)1.00 (0.78–1.29)1.46 (1.15–1.85)1.42 (0.91–2.19)1.62 (1.01–2.58)0.014
Low HDL cholesterol11.00 (0.75–1.33)1.50 (1.01–2.23)0.99 (0.75–1.30)1.44 (1.11–1.86)2.29 (1.44–3.65)1.28 (0.74–2.20)0.001
High fasting glucose11.09 (0.81–1.47)1.03 (0.66–1.61)1.11 (0.83–1.48)1.17 (0.89–1.54)1.02 (0.60–1.73)1.25 (0.73–2.14)0.290
Metabolic syndrome11.09 (0.81–1.48)1.07 (0.68–1.68)0.91 (0.67–1.23)1.24 (0.94–1.64)1.79 (1.10–2.91)1.77 (1.06–2.96)0.023
  • Data are ORs (95% CI) unless otherwise indicated. P values were calculated after adjustment for age (continuous), education level (none, elementary, middle or high school, and college or higher), exercise (none, sometimes, regularly), alcohol consumption (none, <15, 15–29, ≥30 g/day), weight change during the past year (continuous), and amount of dietary fat and fiber (continuous).