Table 1

Characteristics of participants at baseline

CharacteristicAllAt least one episode of severe hypoglycemia at baseline
n*Mean (SD) or
n (%)Median (IQR)Yes
(n = 87)No
(n = 979)P value
Age, years1,06667.9 (4.2)67.9 (64.4–71.5)68.0 (4.5)67.9 (4.2)0.881
Male sex1,066547 (51.3%)32 (36.8%)515 (52.6%)0.005
HbA1c1,028
 %7.4 (1.1)7.2 (6.7–7.9)7.7 (1.4)7.4 (1.1)0.031
 mmol/mol57 (12)55 (50–63)61 (15.3)57 (12)
BP, mmHg
 Systolic1,064133.3 (16.4)132.0 (122.0–142.0)129.8 (18.0)133.6 (16.3)0.036
 Diastolic1,06469.1 (9.0)68.0 (62.0–76.0)65.6 (9.7)69.4 (8.9)<0.001
Cholesterol, mmol/L1,0574.3 (0.9)4.2 (3.7–4.8)4.2 (0.8)4.3 (0.9)0.192
HDL, mmol/L1,0571.3 (0.4)1.3 (1.1–1.5)1.3 (0.4)1.3 (0.4)0.762
BMI, kg/m21,06631.4 (5.8)30.7 (27.4–34.5)32.4 (6.0)31.3 (5.8)0.094
eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m21,06078.1 (23.5)78.6 (63.4–92.5)68.4 (30.5)78.9 (22.5)<0.001
Microalbuminuria1,056176 (16.5%)27 (31.4%)149 (15.4%)<0.001
Duration of diabetes, years1,0538.1 (6.5)6.0 (3.0–11.0)8.9 (3.8)6.0 (2.2)<0.001
Taking lipid-lowering medications1,064912 (85.6%)79 (90.8%)833 (85.3%)0.157
Taking BP-lowering medications1,059873 (81.9%)77 (88.5%)796 (81.9%)0.120
Smoker (ever)1,066652 (61.2%)50 (57.5%)602 (61.5%)0.461
Treatment1,036<0.001
 Diet alone198 (18.6%)5 (6.0%)193 (20.3%)
 Tablets652 (61.2%)41 (49.4%)611 (64.1%)
 Insulin186 (17.4%)37 (44.6%)149 (15.6%)
Macrovascular event1,066374 (35.1%)45 (51.7%)329 (33.6%)0.001
Coronary heart event1,066330 (31.0%)40 (46.0%)290 (29.6%)0.002
Cerebrovascular event1,06693 (8.7%)13 (14.9%)80 (8.2%)0.032
MIs1,066150 (14.1%)17 (19.5%)133 (13.6%)0.126
Stroke1,06662 (5.8%)8 (9.2%)54 (5.5%)0.160
  • Values are mean (SD), n (%), or median (IQR), unless otherwise indicated. BP, blood pressure; IQR, interquartile range.

  • *Complete data were available for age, BMI, sex, smoking, and macrovascular events. Less than 3% of data (from the total ET2DS population) were missing for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, cholesterol level, HDL level, eGFR, microalbuminuria, duration of diabetes, lipid-lowering medications, blood pressure–lowering medications, and diabetes treatment. For HbA1c level, ∼3.6% of data were missing. Data on “any hypoglycemia” were missing for five participants (∼0.5%). Although this is not completely accurate for data on “1-year prior hypoglycemia,” it is the best approximation as it was not possible to determine missing data for the “1-year prior” variable by the way the data were coded.