Table 1—

Data used in the meta-analyses

VariableCitationTiming of samplesInterventionnBaselinePostinterventionChange from baseline
Postprandial rise in glucosePeters et al., 1989baseline (fasted) = 0 mins, postintervention = postprandial 240 mins after meal startStandard formula10NRNR1,900 ± 320 mg · l−1 · 4 h−1*
Diabetes-specific formula10NRNR−20 ± 330 mg · l−1 · 4 h−1*
Sanz-Paris et al., 1998 (insulin)baseline = 0 mins (fasted), postintervention = postprandial 120 mins after meal startStandard formula201,750 ± 480 mg/l*2,560 ± 540 mg/l*NR
Diabetes-specific formula201,940 ± 560 mg/l*2,160 ± 720 mg/l*NR
Sanz-Paris et al., 1998 (sulphonyurea)Standard formula51,510 ± 200 mg/l*1,900 ± 460 mg/l*NR
Diabetes-specific formula71,580 ± 290 mg/l*2,030 ± 480 mg/l*NR
del Carmen Crespillo et al., 2003baseline = 0 mins (fasted), postintervention = postprandial 150 mins after meal startStandard formula11NRNR184 ± 133 mg/l
Diabetes-specific formula11NRNR−8 ± 99 mg/l
Craig et al., 1998Baseline = fasted, postintervention = postprandial, both after 3 months interventionStandard formula136.9 ± 0.6 mmol/l*10.4 ± 1 mmol/l*NR
Diabetes-specific formula147.3 ± 0.4 mmol/l*9 ± 1.3 mmol/l*NR
McCargar et al., 1998Baseline = fasted (premeal), postintervention = 2 h postprandial after 28 days interventionStandard formula16NRNR1.6 ± 0.4 mmol/l*
Diabetes-specific formula16NRNR1.1 ± 0.2 mmol/l*
Mesejo et al., 2003Baseline = on admission (study start), postintervention = postprandial after 14 days interventionStandard formula242,103 ± 630 mg/l2,228 ± 471.2 mg/lNR
Diabetes-specific formula261,909 ± 450 mg/l1,768 ± 440.1 mg/lNR
Peak blood glucoseHofman et al., 2004Baseline = 0 mins (fasted), postintervention = 6 h after meal startStandard formula12NRNR4 ± 1.4 mmol/l
Diabetes-specific formula12NRNR2.5 ± 1 mmol/l
Hofman et al., 2004Baseline = 0 mins (fasted), postintervention = 120 mins after meal startStandard formula10NRNR4 ± 0.4 mmol/l*
Diabetes-specific formula10NRNR2.3 ± 0.4 mmol/l*
Blood glucose AUCGolay et al., 1995IAUC (mmol/Lxh), 4 hStandard formula6NRNR15.9 ± 2.3 mmol · l−1 · h−1*
Diabetes-specific formula6NRNR8.9 ± 1.8 mmol · l−1 · h−1*
Printz et al., 1997AUC (mmol/l*min), over basal (0–180 mins)Standard formula10NRNR893 ± 77 mmol · l−1 · h−1*
Diabetes-specific formula10NRNR620 ± 64 mmol · l−1 · h−1*
Hofman et al., 2004iAUC (mmol/Lx min), 6 hStandard formula12NRNR945 ± 474 mmol · l−1 · min−1
Diabetes-specific formula12NRNR584 ± 322 mmol · l−1 · h−1
Hofman et al., 2004AUC (mmol/l/120mins) above baseline levelStandard formula10NRNR307 ± 29 mmol · l−1 · 120 mins−1*
Diabetes-specific formula10NRNR168 ± 31 mmol · l−1 · 120 mins−1*
Fasting blood glucoseCraig et al., 1998baseline = study start, postintervention = after 3 months intervention, all fastedStandard formula136.9 ± 0.6 mmol/l*8.3 ± 1.7 mmol/l*NR
Diabetes-specific formula147.3 ± 0.4 mmol/l*6.7 ± 0.7 mmol/l*NR
McCargar et al., 1998baseline = study start, postintervention = after 28 days intervention, all fastedStandard formula168.73 ± 0.46 mmol/l*7.97 ± 0.53 mmol/l*NR
Diabetes-specific formula169.16 ± 0.59 mmol/l*7.54 ± 0.37 mmol/l*NR
HDLCraig et al., 1998baseline = study start, postintervention = after 3 months intervention, all fastedStandard formula130.98 ± 0.05 mmol/l*0.83 ± 0.05 mmol/l*NR
Diabetes-specific formula141.01 ± 0.05 mmol/l*0.98 ± 0.05 mmol/l*NR
McCargar et al., 1998baseline = study start, postintervention = after 28 days intervention, probably fastedStandard formula161.37 ± 0.19 mmol/l*1.08 ± 0.07 mmol/l*NR
Diabetes-specific formula161.5 ± 0.16 mmol/l*1.2 ± 0.1 mmol/l*NR
TriglyceridesPeters et al., 1989baseline = 0 mins (fasted), postintervention = 240 mins after meal start (postprandial)Standard formula100.54 ± 0.1 g/l*0.75 ± 0.14 g/l*NR
Diabetes-specific formula100.54 ± 0.17 g/l*1 ± 0.22 g/l*NR
del Carmen Crespillo et al., 2003baseline = 0 mins (fasted), postintervention = 150 mins after meal start (postprandial)Standard formula11NRNR26 ± 42 mg/l
Diabetes-specific formula11NRNR9 ± 88 mg/l
Craig et al., 1998baseline = study start, postintervention = after 3 months intervention, all fasted: measured as triacylglycerol.Standard formula13 140.9 ± 0.07 g/l1.06 ± 0.12 g/lNR
Diabetes-specific formula140.97 ± 0.13 g/l0.91 ± 0.17 g/lNR
McCargar et al., 1998baseline = study start, postintervention = after 28 days intervention, probably fastedStandard formula161.81 ± 0.27 mmol/l*1.86 ± 0.28 mmol/l*NR
Diabetes-specific formula161.46 ± 0.29 mmol/l*1.33 ± 0.24 mmol/l*NR
Change in total CholesterolCraig et al., 1998baseline = study start, postintervention = after 3 months intervention, all fastedStandard formula134.21 ± 0.18 mmol/l*3.96 ± 0.23 mmol/l*NR
Diabetes-specific formula144.16 ± 0.31 mmol/l*3.95 ± 0.31 mmol/l*NR
McCargar et al., 1998Baseline = study start, postintervention = after 28 days intervention, probably fastedStandard formula165.06 ± 0.21 mmol/l*4.58 ± 0.27 mmol/l*NR
Diabetes-specific formula165.24 ± 0.19 mmol/l*5.05 ± 0.28 mmol/l*NR
  • *

    * Data are means ± SD or *SE.

  • Change from baseline data calculated by subtracting baseline from postintervention value and SD of the difference calculated by standard formulas SD(post-pre) = √[Var(post) + Var(pre) − Cov(pre,post)].

  • NR, not recorded.