Table 2—

Ethnic differences in mortality (reference whites) reported by included studies (parts of studies)

RegionNo adjustmentAdjusting for confoundersAdjusting for additional risk factors
    Black− − − −=
    Hispanic− =− = = =
    Black+ +=
Other− =
  • Outcomes are coded as −, worse situation and higher mortality; =, no difference in mortality; and +, better situation and lower mortality. Studies addressing several outcome variables and/or ethnic groups or studies making stepwise adjustment for confounders and risk factors could contribute more than one sign to the table.