Table 3—

Ethnic differences in diabetes complications (reference whites) reported by included studies (parts of studies)

ComplicationNo adjustmentAdjusting for confoundersAdjusting for additional risk factors
LEA
    U.S.
        Black− −− − =− − = = = =
        Hispanic− + =− =
        Asian+ +
        Other− =
    U.K.
        Black+=
        Asian+
Retinopathy
    U.S.
        Black− + = = =
        Hispanic− − − +
    U.K.
        Black=
        Asian+
    Other
        Other=
Nephropathy and ESRD
    U.S.
        Black− − =− − =
        Hispanic− =− =
        Asian
    U.K.
        Black=
        Asian
    Other
        Asian
        Other=
Cardiovascular complications
    U.S.
        Black= =+ = =
        Hispanic= =+ + +
        Asian+ + +
    U.K.
        Black+
        Asian+ =
Neuropathy
    U.S.
        Black==
        Hispanic==
    Other
        Other
  • Outcomes are coded as −, worse situation and increased/higher risk; =, the same situation and no different risk; and +, better situation and decreased/lower risk. Studies addressing several outcome variables and/or ethnic groups or studies making stepwise adjustment for confounders and risk factors could contribute more than one sign to the table.