Table 4—

Ethnic differences in intermediate outcomes of care (reference whites) measured by separate indicators and reported by included studies (parts of studies), all U.S. studies

Intermediate outcomeNo adjustmentAdjusting for confoundersAdjusting for additional risk factors
A1C
    Black= =− − − − − − − = =
    Hispanic− =
Other
    Black− − − = = = = = = = +− − = = =
    Hispanic− = = +− = = =
  • Outcomes are coded as −, worse outcome regarding one indicator; =, equal outcome regarding one indicator; and +, better outcome regarding one indicator. Studies addressing several outcome variables and/or ethnic groups or studies making stepwise adjustment for confounders and risk factors could contribute more than one sign to the table.