Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of the study population according to dietary magnesium and calcium intake

Magnesium (quintiles)
Calcium (quintiles)
Q1Q2Q3Q4Q5Q1Q2Q3Q4Q5
Median intake115144168195244219299377476661
Number of participants8,2378,2378,2388,2378,2378,2378,2378,2388,2378,237
Age (years) (mean)37.137.538.039.441.438.738.838.638.439.0
Low education level (%)*21161413122117141312
BMI (kg/m2) (mean)28.027.927.627.627.027.627.727.627.627.6
Strenuous activity <1 h/week (%)62534844366052494438
Current smoker (%)19181714122118161412
Parental history of diabetes (%)27262626262727252626
Alcohol (drinks/day)0.200.210.210.190.170.250.200.210.190.15
Dietary intake (mean)
    Fiber (g/day)6.07.99.511.315.27.39.410.310.911.6
    Magnesium (mg/day)129159176191217
    Calcium (mg/day)268350411474567
    Saturated fat (energy %)10.910.810.49.68.09.910.110.110.09.5
    Linoleic acid (energy %)6.76.56.35.84.96.76.46.25.85.1
    Processed meat (servings/day)0.440.420.360.290.180.420.380.350.310.23
    Other red meat (servings/day)0.340.340.300.240.150.330.310.280.250.19
    Soft drinks (glasses/day)1.070.650.470.320.171.020.580.460.380.24
    Coffee (cups/day)0.520.690.800.951.170.700.830.880.850.87
    Whole grains (servings/day)0.160.300.430.620.930.280.430.510.570.64
    Dairy (servings/day)0.670.871.001.101.180.370.600.861.181.79
  • * <13 years of education.

  • Only includes sugar-sweetened soft drinks.