Table 5—

Ethnic differences in process of care (reference whites) measured by separate indicators and reported by included studies (parts of studies), all U.S. studies

Process of careNo adjustmentAdjusting for confoundersAdjusting for additional risk factors
Test A1C
    Black− − =− − − = = = = = = = =
    Hispanic= = = = = =
    Asian+
    Other
Blood pressure
    Black= = = ==
    Hispanic− − = ==
    Asian
    Other
Eye exam
    Black− − = =− − − = =
    Hispanic=+
    Asian=
    Other
Lipids and renal function
    Black− − − − = = = =− − − = = = = +
    Hispanic− − − == = = =
    Asian= = =
    Other
Other
    Black− − + + = = =+− − − = = = = = = +
    Hispanic=− − − − = = =
    Asian+ +
    Other=
  • Outcomes are coded as −, worse quality regarding one indicator; =, equal quality regarding one indicator; and +, better quality regarding one indicator. Studies addressing several outcome variables and/or ethnic groups or studies making stepwise adjustment for confounders and risk factors could contribute more than one sign to the table.