Table 2—

Hazard ratios of type 2 diabetes for dietary calcium intake and magnesium intake

Categories of intake
P trend
Quintile 1Quintile 2Quintile 3Quintile 4Quintile 5
Calcium
    Median (mg/day)219299377476661
    Cases (n)436424395345364
    Person-years53,24052,78353,18252,83652,402
    Age-adjusted hazard ratio1 (ref.)0.91 (0.80–1.04)0.84 (0.74–0.97)0.72 (0.62–0.83)0.71 (0.62–0.82)<0.0001
    Multivariate hazard ratio*1 (ref.)0.96 (0.84–1.10)0.91 (0.79–1.05)0.82 (0.70–0.95)0.86 (0.74–1.00)0.01
    Further adjusted for magnesium intake1 (ref.)1.03 (0.90–1.19)1.02 (0.88–1.19)0.95 (0.81–1.12)1.04 (0.88–1.24)0.88
Magnesium
    Median (mg/day)115144168195244
    Cases (n)430390373386385
    Person-years51,65851,95253,06953,38754,377
    Age-adjusted hazard ratio1 (ref.)0.81 (0.71–0.93)0.69 (0.60–0.79)0.60 (0.52–0.69)0.47 (0.41–0.54)<0.0001
    Multivariate hazard ratio*1 (ref.)0.87 (0.76–1.01)0.80 (0.69–0.92)0.75 (0.64–0.86)0.69 (0.59–0.81)<0.0001
    Further adjusted for calcium intake1 (ref.)0.86 (0.75–0.99)0.78 (0.66–0.91)0.72 (0.61–0.84)0.65 (0.54–0.78)<0.0001
  • Data are hazard ratio (95% CI). Age-adjusted hazard ratios are adjusted for age (years) and total energy intake (kcal/day).

  • * Multivariate hazard ratio adjusted for age (years), total energy intake (kcal/day), BMI (kg/m2), smoking status (never, past, current <15/day, or current ≥15/day), strenuous physical activity (five categories), alcohol consumption (five categories), parental history of diabetes (yes/no), education level (four categories), coffee consumption (six categories), sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption (five categories), and quintiles of processed meat and other red meat consumption.

  • Multivariate model with additional adjustment for calcium or magnesium intake (quintiles).