Table 3—

Hazard ratio of type 2 diabetes for whole-grain and dairy consumption

Categories of intake
P trend
Less than one serving per weekOne to four servings per weekFive to six servings per weekOne or more servings per day
Whole grains
    Median (servings/day)0.030.370.791.29
    Cases (n)673746209336
    Person-years81,809108,02128,44046,173
    Age-adjusted hazard ratio1 (ref)0.75 (0.68–0.84)0.65 (0.55–0.76)0.52 (0.46–0.60)<0.0001
    Multivariate hazard ratio*1 (ref.)0.84 (0.75–0.93)0.76 (0.65–0.89)0.69 (0.60–0.79)<0.0001
Low-fat dairy
    Median (servings/day)00.390.821.22
    Cases (n)937570160297
    Person-years124,47178,26122,24839,463
    Age-adjusted hazard ratio1 (ref.)0.97 (0.87–1.08)0.87 (0.74–1.03)0.76 (0.66–0.86)<0.0001
    Multivariate hazard ratio*1 (ref.)1.00 (0.90–1.11)0.93 (0.78–1.10)0.87 (0.76–1.00)0.04
High-fat dairy
    Median (servings/day)0.070.330.831.33
    Cases (n)422983208351
    Person-years57,156135,75428,11743,416
    Age-adjusted hazard ratio1 (ref.)1.10 (0.98–1.24)1.12 (0.95–1.33)1.06 (0.91–1.23)0.77
    Multivariate hazard ratio*1 (ref.)1.05 (0.94–1.19)1.05 (0.88–1.25)1.03 (0.88–1.20)0.94
Total dairyLess than one serving per weekOne to four servings per weekFive to six servings per weekOne serving per dayTwo or more servings per dayP trend
    Median (servings/day)0.070.390.851.332.53
    Cases (n)177729249593216
    Person-years21,115100,99738,06978,76725,495
    Age-adjusted hazard ratio1 (ref)0.93 (0.79–1.10)0.82 (0.68–1.00)0.83 (0.70–0.98)0.75 (0.61–0.93)0.001
    Multivariate hazard ratio*1 (ref)0.98 (0.83–1.16)0.87 (0.72–1.06)0.91 (0.76–1.08)0.93 (0.75–1.15)0.31
  • Data are hazard ratio (95% CI). Whole grains include dark breads, such as wheat, rye, and pumpernickel; high fiber, bran, or granola cereals; or shredded wheat. Dairy includes milk, milk/cream in tea or coffee, yogurt, frozen yogurt, ice cream, butter, and cheese. Low-fat dairy includes reduced-fat milk, reduced-fat yogurt, and reduced-fat frozen yogurt. High-fat dairy includes cheese, butter, ice cream, milk/cream in coffee, and nonreduced fat milk, yogurt, and frozen yogurt. Age-adjusted hazard ratios are adjusted for age (years) and total energy intake (kcal/day).

  • * Multivariate adjusted as described in the footnotes to Table 2 with additional adjustment for low-fat dairy consumption (for calculation of the hazard ratio for whole grains) or for whole-grain consumption (for calculation of hazard ratio for the dairy variables).