Table 9—

Plasma blood glucose and A1C goals for type 1 diabetes by age group

Values by age (years)Plasma blood glucose goal range (mg/dl)
A1C (%)Rationale
Before mealsBedtime/overnight
Toddlers and preschoolers (<6)100–180110–200≤8.5 (but ≥ 7.5%)• High risk and vulnerability to hypoglycemia
School age (6–12)90–180100–180<8%• Risks of hypoglycemia and relatively low risk of complications prior to puberty
Adolescents and young adults (13–19)90–13090–150<7.5%*• Risk of hypoglycemia
• Developmental and psychological issues
Key concepts in setting glycemic goals:
• Goals should be individualized and lower goals may be reasonable based on benefit: risk assessment
• Blood glucose goals should be higher than those listed above in children with frequent hypoglycemia or hypoglycemia unawareness
• Postprandial blood glucose values should be measured when there is a disparity between preprandial blood glucose values and A1C levels
  • *

    * A lower goal (<7.0%) is reasonable if it can be achieved without excessive hypoglycemia