Table 1—

Baseline characteristics by coffee drinking habits in nondiabetic participants, Rancho Bernardo Study, 1984–1987

CharacteristicCoffee drinking status
P value*
NeverPastCurrent
n97153660
Age (years)64.2 ± 9.066.2 ± 7.966.1 ± 8.70.09
Sex0.14
    Male40 (41.2)51 (33.3)278 (42.1)
    Female57 (58.8)102 (66.7)382 (57.9)
Exercise ≥3 times/week0.23
    No18 (18.6)17 (11.1)103 (15.6)
    Yes79 (81.4)136 (88.9)557 (84.4)
BMI (kg/m2)0.27
    Normal (<25.0)58 (59.8)93 (60.8)371 (56.2)
    Overweight (25.0–29.9)28 (28.9)51 (33.3)244 (37.0)
    Obese (≥30)11 (11.3)9 (5.9)45 (6.8)
Smoking≤0.01
    Never66 (68.0)67 (43.8)259 (39.2)
    Past24 (24.7)67 (43.8)313 (47.4)
    Current7 (7.2)19 (12.4)88 (13.3)
Average daily alcohol intake (g)≤0.01
    None58 (59.8)57 (37.3)190 (28.8)
    1–3027 (27.8)77 (50.3)391 (59.2)
    >3012 (12.4)19 (12.4)79 (12.0)
Hypertension0.25
    Normal22 (22.7)35 (22.9)143 (21.7)
    Prehypertensive41 (42.3)45 (29.4)221 (33.5)
    Hypertensive34 (35.1)73 (47.7)296 (44.9)
  • Data are means ± SD or n (%).

  • *

    * P value for age based on ANOVA. All other P values based on Pearson’s χ2 test of association.

  • Hypertension categories were based on SBP and DBP as follows: normal (SBP <120 mmHg and DBP <80 mmHg ), prehypertensive (SBP 120–139 mmHg or DBP 80–99 mmHg ), or hypertensive (SBP >140 mmHg or DBP >90 mmHg ). In addition, individuals taking antihypertensive medication were categorized as hypertensive.