Table 2—

Selected clinical characteristics of middle aged and elderly adults with and without diabetes, NHANES 1999–2002

Middle aged (40–64 years)
Elderly (≥65 years)
No diabetesDiabetesNo diabetesMiddle age–onset diabetesElderly onset diabetesP value*
n3,3913742,344272193
Mean fasting glucose (mg/dl)99.8 ± 0.6148.9 ± 5.0105.4 ± 1.2172.4 ± 11.1132.3 ± 6.10.001
Mean A1C (%)5.4 ± 0.027.7 ± 0.25.6 ± 0.027.4 ± 0.16.9 ± 0.20.011
A1C >7%1.4 ± 0.355.3 ± 3.32.1 ± 0.459.9 ± 4.241.6 ± 4.50.005
A1C >8%0.8 ± 0.236.7 ± 3.50.9 ± 0.327.9 ± 4.720.2 ± 4.60.149
Mean age at diagnosis of diabetes (years)46.7 ± 0.653.2 ± 0.771.8 ± 0.5<0.001
Years since diagnosis of diabetes
    >10 years25.4 ± 2.676.7 ± 3.810.9 ± 3.2<0.0001
    5–10 years26.9 ± 2.817.6 ± 3.824.1 ± 4.70.3490
    <5 years47.7 ± 3.65.7 ± 1.865.0 ± 5.5<0.0001
Glucose-lowering medication use
    No medication10018.9 ± 3.31009.0 ± 2.822.5 ± 3.80.1327
    Insulin use9.4 ± 2.331.7 ± 4.76.9 ± 1.3<0.0001
    Oral medication use61.4 ± 3.245.6 ± 4.267.5 ± 4.60.8319
    Both insulin and oral10.2 ± 2.313.7 ± 2.73.2 ± 1.60.0004
History of cardiovascular disease5.6 ± 0.613.9 ± 2.619.6 ± 1.336.1 ± 4.034.7 ± 4.50.817
History of stroke1.7 ± 0.35.0 ± 1.67.8 ± 0.814.0 ± 3.311.4 ± 2.90.596
History of coronary heart disease4.3 ± 0.410.4 ± 2.614.0 ± 1.130.1 ± 4.428.2 ± 4.40.754
Peripheral arterial disease2.4 ± 0.36.0 ± 2.012.0 ± 1.022.4 ± 6.518.4 ± 4.10.584
Peripheral neuropathy7.9 ± 0.716.9 ± 2.821.5 ± 1.335.5 ± 6.137.1 ± 6.00.855
History of retinopathy24.8 ± 3.239.4 ± 4.312.6 ± 3.6<0.0001
  • Data are proportions ± SE unless otherwise indicated.

  • *

    * P value for the comparison between the elderly middle age–onset and elderly onset diabetes groups.

  • Estimate has a relative SE >30%.

  • Question was only asked in individuals with diagnosed diabetes.