Table 2—

Prevalence of celiac disease–related symptoms reported by the diabetic patients before screening for celiac disease was performed and by patients with celiac disease after 2 years of consuming a GFD

Symptoms*Patients without celiac diseasePatients with celiac diseaseP valuePatients consuming a GFD
n23633
Abdominal pain23 (9.7)16 (48.5)<0.0010
Loose and/or frequent stools15 (6.4)7 (21.2)0.0102 (6.5)
Bloating24 (10.2)9 (27.2)0.0213 (9.7)
Constipation2 (0.8)3 (9.0)0.0140
Arthralgias10 (4.2)7 (21.2)0.0021 (3.2)
Tiredness6 (2.5)8 (24.2)<0.0010
Frequent hypoglycemia1 (0.4)2 (6.0)0.0400
Aphthous ulcers1 (0.4)1 (3.0)0.2300
Tooth enamel defects8 (3.4)3 (9.0)0.139
Hemoglobin <6.5 mmol/l4 (12.1)0
Serum ferritin <15 μg/l9 (27.2)1 (3.2)
Thyroid antibodies13 (5.5)3 (9.0)0.425
Dermatitis herpetiformis01 (3.0)0.122
Autoimmune hypothyroiditis04 (12.1)<0.001
  • Data are n (%).

  • *

    * A few patients with celiac disease first reported symptoms in retrospect after experiencing the relief with the GFD (three patients reported abdominal pain, a single patient reported abdominal pain, diarrhea, and tiredness, and another patient reported arthralgias).

  • Some patients reported abdominal pain at breach of the diet.