Table 1—

Clinical characteristics of the subjects

NGT (n = 57)IGT (n = 48)Type 2 diabetes (n = 49)P
Age (years)52 ± 1053 ± 1256 ± 90.160
Sex (M/F)21/3619/2920/290.911
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)123 ± 17128 ± 17129 ± 140.126
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)78 ± 1281 ± 1481 ± 90.219
BMI (kg/m2)24.4 ± 3.224.9 ± 3.125.3 ± 2.80.283
Waist circumference (cm)82 ± 9*86 ± 7*87 ± 70.001
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)4.4 ± 0.8*5.3 ± 0.8*6.6 ± 1.0<0.001
2-h postchallenge plasma glucose (mmol/l)5.9 ± 1.2*9.2 ± 1.0*14.5 ± 2.4<0.001
Fasting plasma insulin (pmol/l)62 ± 2471 ± 3079 ± 360.016
Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.38 (0.43–6.08)1.53 (0.61–8.38)1.44 (0.44–5.86)0.238
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)4.89 ± 0.92*5.39 ± 0.97*5.16 ± 0.790.019
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)2.90 ± 0.79*3.30 ± 0.88*3.18 ± 0.680.032
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.22 (0.78–2.18)1.26 (0.73–2.67)1.14 (0.78–2.51)0.562
Fat mass (kg)16.8 ± 5.518.3 ± 4.619.2 ± 4.90.074
Percent body fat27.1 ± 6.827.8 ± 6.329.3 ± 5.80.229
A1C (%)5.6 (5.1–6.7)*6.1 (4.6–7.1)*6.4 (5.5–8.4)<0.001
HOMA-IR2.0 (0.6–4.0)*2.7 (0.2–6.3)*3.3 (1.1–14.0)<0.001
HOMA-B206 (46–874)*117 (24–769)*82 (31–292)<0.001
  • Data are means ± SD (for normal distribution) or median (range). P values are by ANOVA.

  • *

    * P < 0.05 for NGT vs. IGT;

  • P < 0.05 for NGT vs. type 2 diabetes,

  • P < 0.05 for IGT vs. type 2 diabetes.