Table 1—

Clinical features of 316 men with type 2 diabetes according to smoking status

Never smokersCurrent Smokers
n158158
Age (years)61.8 ± 9.761.4 ± 11.9
Duration of diabetes (years)10.9 ± 9.611.8 ± 9.6
BMI (kg/m2)29.4 ± 5.328.4 ± 5.5
Waist circumference (cm)101.2 ± 13.9102.9 ± 15.9
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)133.4 ± 15.5136.2 ± 17.9
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)79.2 ± 8.479.4 ± 9.9
Triglycerides (mg/dl)138 (43–1,824)152 (20–711)
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)189.6 ± 45.9186.0 ± 45.0
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)41.6 ± 10.442.5 ± 14.3
GHb (%)8.4 ± 2.09.1 ± 2.1
ACR (mg/mmol)1.36 (0.08–95.14)2.06 (0.02–156.33)*
e-GFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)81.6 ± 22.985.5 ± 29.3
Micro- and macroalbuminuria61 (38.9)76 (48.1)
Micro-/macroalbuminuria52 (33.1)/9 (5.7)61 (38.3)/15 (9.7)
FORT units442.7 ± 87.2 (n = 54)560.0 ± 91.5 (n = 46)
Antidiabetic treatment
    Diet alone17 (10.8)15 (9.5)
    OHA82 (51.9)84 (53.2)
    Insulin ± OHA59 (37.3)59 (37.3)
Arterial hypertension119 (75.3)124 (78.5)
Treatment with ACE inhibitors/ARBs61 (38.9)92 (58.2)*
Dyslipidemia129 (81.6)131 (83.4)
Treatment with hypolipidemic therapy41 (26.1)55 (35.0)
Retinopathy110 (69.9)111 (70.7)
Low e-GFR19 (12.0)33 (20.9)*
Metabolic syndrome109 (69.2)120 (76.0)
  • Data are n (%), means ± SD, or median (range). P values for comparison between current smokers and never smokers:

  • *

    * P < 0.05;

  • P < 0.0001. ARB, angiotensin II receptor blocker; OHA, oral hypoglycemic agent.