Table 2—

Risk of subsequent type 1 diabetes before the age of 20 years in relation to celiac disease status

Type 1 diabetes
Ketoacidosis or diabetic coma
nEventsHR (95% CI)PEventsHR (95% CI)P
No celiac disease45,6801991.0451.0
Any celiac disease9,243962.4 (1.9–3.0)<0.001222.3 (1.4–3.9)0.001
Age at first recorded celiac disease diagnosis (years)
    0–27,090772.2 (1.7–2.9)<0.001192.3 (1.3–3.9)0.004
    3–202,153193.4 (1.9–6.1)<0.00132.9 (0.7–12.2)0.143
Sex
    Male3,889371.9 (1.3–2.9)0.00181.5 (0.7–3.4)0.301
    Female5,354592.7 (2.0–3.8)<0.001143.3 (1.7–6.6)0.001
  • Events refers to the number of positive events before end of follow-up (diagnosis of type 1 diabetes or ketoacidosis/diabetic coma). Estimates derived from Cox regression internally stratified for sex, age, year of study entry, and county of residence (e.g., children with celiac disease diagnosed before the age of 3 years were at 2.2-fold increased risk of developing subsequent type 1 diabetes before the age of 20 years).