Table 2—

Fasting glucose, insulin, insulin sensitivity, A1C, anthropometry, body composition, and muscle strength at baseline (0 months), 2 months, and 14 months in the center and home groups and the net difference between groups

Within-group change
Adjusted net difference between center and home
0–2 months0–14 months2–14 months0–14 months2–14 months
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)
    Home−0.2 ± 2.2−0.4 ± 2.2−0.2 ± 2.2
    Center−0.5 ± 1.8−0.8 ± 1.8−0.3 ± 1.8−0.4 (−1.1 to 0.3)−0.2 (−1.2 to 0.9)
Fasting serum insulin (pmol/l)*
    Home4.8 ± 32.8−3.7 ± 32.8−8.5 ± 32.8
    Center−0.3 ± 47.6−22.2 ± 47.6−21.9 ± 47.6−18.5 (−39.7 to 2.6)−13.4 (−35.6 to 8.9)
Insulin sensitivity (HOMA) (%)*
    Home−2.6 ± 12.4−0.2 ± 12.42.4 ± 12.4
    Center−4.0 ± 16.45.4 ± 16.49.4 ± 16.45.6 (−2.0 to 13.2)7.1 (−0.5 to 14.6)
A1C (%)
    Home−0.3 ± 1.1−0.1 ± 1.10.2 ± 1.2
    Center−0.5 ± 1.0−0.4 ± 1.00.1 ± 1.0−0.3 (−0.8 to 0.2)−0.2 (−0.7 to 0.4)
Weight (kg)
    Home0.4 ± 3.2−1.8 ± 3.2−2.2 ± 3.2
    Center0.1 ± 4.2−2.0 ± 4.2−2.1 ± 3.4−0.2 (−2.2 to 1.8)0.0 (−1.9 to 2.0)
Waist circumference (cm)
    Home−0.6 ± 5.9−2.6 ± 5.9−2.0 ± 5.9
    Center−1.7 ± 5.3−2.9 ± 5.3−1.3 ± 5.3−0.4 (−3.3 to 2.6)0.7 (−2.3 to 3.7)
Fat mass (kg)
    Home−0.1 ± 3.2−1.1 ± 3.2−1.0 ± 3.2
    Center−0.9 ± 3.2−1.8 ± 3.2−0.8 ± 3.2−0.7 (−2.4 to 0.9)0.2 (−1.5 to 1.8)
LBM (kg)
    Home0.4 ± 2.2−0.5 ± 2.2−0.9 ± 2.2
    Center1.0 ± 1.6−0.3 ± 1.6−1.3 ± 1.60.2 (−0.8 to 1.3)−0.3 (−1.4 to 0.7)
Upper body muscle strength (kg)
    Home11.8 ± 17.88.4 ± 17.8−3.4 ± 17.8
    Center11.9 ± 19.68.2 ± 19.6−3.7 ± 19.6−0.2 (−9.4 to 9.0)−0.3 (−9.5 to 8.7)
Lower body muscle strength (kg)
    Home4.1 ± 10.5−3.1 ± 10.5−7.2 ± 10.5
    Center4.0 ± 6.33.6 ± 6.3−0.3 ± 6.36.7 (2.2 to 11.3)6.9 (2.3 to 11.4)
  • Data are means ± SD or means (95% CI). The respective net differences refer to the within-group change from baseline to 14 months and the within-group change from 2 to 14 months in the center group minus the within-group change from baseline to 14 months and the change from 2 to 14 months in the home group, adjusted for age, sex, and duration of diabetes.

  • *

    * Data were log transformed for statistical analysis.

  • P < 0.05, within-group difference;

  • P < 0.05, between-group difference. There were no significant differences between the groups at 2 months.