Table 1

Prevalence of elevated glycemia, CVD risk factors, and early complications, SEARCH 2006–2013

Type 1P valueType 2P value
Glycemia (28)N = 3,947N = 552
 A1C ≥9.5% (≥80 mmol/mol), all races (%)16.826.6
  Non-Hispanic white12.3<0.0001*12.2<0.0001*
  African American35.522.3
  Hispanic27.327.4
  Asian Pacific Islander26.036.4
  American Indian52.243.8
CVD risk factors, age 10–19 years (30)N = 1,376N = 63
 Hypertension (%)22.073.0
 Elevated triglycerides (%)14.065.0
 Decreased HDL (%)9.060.0
 Increased waist circumference (%)15.095.0
N = 2,657N = 345
 Elevated apoB (%) (32)10.636.3<0.0001
 Dense LDL (%) (32)7.936.3
Retinopathy (34)N = 222N = 43
 Any (%)17.042.00.40
 Mild/moderate/proliferative (%)2.716.3
Nephropathy (33)N = 2,885N = 374
 Elevated ACR ≥30 μg/mg (%)9.222.2<0.0001
NeuropathyN = 329N = 70
 Peripheral neuropathy MNSE >2 (%) (35)8.225.7<0.0001
 Heart rate variability (%) (36)−11.60.003††
Arterial stiffness (37)N = 535N = 60
 Pulse wave velocity (m/sec)5.36.4<0.01
 BrachD (%/mmHg)6.15.2<0.01
  • ACR, albumin/creatinine ratio; BrachD, brachial distensibility (lower is stiffer); CVD, cardiovascular disease; MNSE, Michigan neuropathy screening examination; pulse wave velocity, carotid to femoral (higher is stiffer).

  • *Within type of diabetes.

  • †Hypertension: diastolic blood pressure ≥90th percentile for age, sex, and height or taking medication for high blood pressure; triglycerides ≥110 mg/dL; HDL ≤40 mg/dL; waist ≥90th percentile for age, sex, and height; apoB ≥100 mg/dL; dense LDL, relative flotation rate ≤0.237.

  • ‡Between type of diabetes.

  • ††Compared with nondiabetic control subjects, N = 354 type 1; 176 control subjects.