Table 1—

Descriptive statistics of studies included in the meta-analysis

Study (ref.)EthnicityAge (years)Sample size (n)
Dietary cointervention*Exercise intervention
ExerciseControlFrequency (weeks−1)Duration (weeks)Session time (min)Total time (h)Intensity ratingIntensity description
Aerobic training
    Agurs-Collins et al. (38)African American623127Yes3133019.53Low impact aerobic
    Agurs-Collins et al. (38)African American623025Yes32630393Low impact aerobic
    Boudou et al. (52)European458 M, 0 F8 M, 0 FNo384518475% Vo2max 2 days/week + 85% Vo2max 1 day/week
    Cuff et al. (59)European610 M, 9 F0 M, 9 FNo31675602Low impact aerobic
    Dunstan et al. (40)European538 M, 3 F9 M, 3 FYes384016350–65% Vo2max
    Dunstan et al. (40)European5310 M, 4 F10 M, 2 FYes384016350–65% Vo2max
    Fujii et al. (56)Japanese406 M, 4 F9 M, 6 FNo5263065240% Vo2max
    Giannopoulou et al. (41)European570 M, 11 F0 M, 11 FYes3145035365–70% Vo2max
    Khan and Rupp (63)European502118No5155063240–60% Vo2max
    Lehmann et al. (61)European566 M, 8 F7 M, 6 FNo3139058.5350–70% Vo2max
    Ligtenberg et al. (49)European622526No365015460–80% Vo2max
    Mourier et al. (50)European461011No3105527.5475% Vo2max
    Raz et al. (51)European577 M, 12 F7 M, 12 FNo3125533365% Vo2max
    Ronnemaa et al. (58)European531312No617.54578.75370% Vo2max
    Skarfors et al. (53)European598 M, 0 F8 M, 0 FNo210445156475% Vo2max
    Vanninen et al. (64)European5321 M, 0 F24 M, 0 FNo3.55245135.23Heart rate 110–140 bpm
    Vanninen et al. (64)European540 M, 17 F0 M, 16 FNo3.55245135.23Heart rate 110–140 bpm
    Yamnouchi et al. (43)Japanese428 M, 2 F11 M, 3 FYes77120141Exercise group 19,200 steps/day, control group 4,500 steps/day
    Wing et al. (42)European541012Yes310603034.8 km/h
    Wing et al. (42)European561315Yes410604034.8 km/h
    Verity and Ismail (62)European590 M, 5 F0 M, 5 FNo3177563.75465–80% heart-rate reserve
Resistance training
    Baldi and Snowling (57)Polynesian, European489 M, 0 F9 M, 0 FNo310603032 sets, 12–15 reps, 10 exercises
    Castaneda et al. (60)Hispanic669 M, 20 F12 M, 19 FNo316453643 sets, 8 reps, 5 exercises
    Dunstan et al. (44)European518 M, 3 F5 M, 5 FNo38602422–3 sets, 10–15 reps, 10 exercises, 50–55% 1 RM
    Dunstan et al. (39)European6710 M, 6 F6 M, 7 FYes3134529.2543 sets, 10 reps, 9 exercises, 50–85% 1 RM
    Dunstan et al. (39)European6710 M, 6 F6 M, 7 FYes3264558.5043 sets, 10 reps, 9 exercises, 50–85% 1 RM
    Honkola et al. (45)European6512 M, 6 F5 M, 15 FNo3224549.5032 sets, 12–15 reps, 8–10 exercises
    Ishii et al. (46)Japanese4998No55602522 sets, 10–20 reps, 10 exercises, 40–50% 1 RM
Combined training
    Balducci et al. (65)European6128 M, 29 F28 M, 27 FNo35260156340–80% heart-rate reserve, 40–60% 1 RM, 1 set, 12 reps, 6 exercises
    Cuff et al. (59)European610 M, 10 F0 M, 9 FNo3167560360–70% heart-rate reserve on 5 machines, 2 sets, 12 reps, 5 exercises
    Loimaala et al. (69)European5424 M, 0 F25 M, 0 FNo45245156365–75% Vo2max; 3 sets, 10–12 reps, 8 exercises
    Maiorana et al. (47)European5214 M, 2 F14 M, 2 FNo3860243Circuit training: 8 aerobic + 7 resistance exercises, 45 s each with 15 s rest
    Tessier et al. (48)European6912 M, 7 F11 M, 9 FNo3166048360–79% Vo2max; 2 sets, 20 reps, 9 exercises
  • *

    * Applies to experimental and control groups;

  • including a diet high in fish;

  • estimated. RM, repetition maximum.