Table 2—

Changes in measures of blood glucose control and related physiological parameters for the individual studies included in the meta-analysis and for the meta-analyzed means after controlling for moderating effects of study characteristics

Study (ref.)A1C (%)Blood glucose
Insulin sensitivity (%)Fasting insulin (%)Body mass (%)Body fat (%)
Waist circumference (%)Total cholesterol (mmol/l)LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)Triglycerides (mmol/l)Blood pressure (mmHg)
Fasting (mmol/l)Postprandial (%)Fat massAbdominal fatSystolicDiastolic
Aerobic training
    Agurs-Collins et al. (38)
        3 months−1.6 ± 0.7−2.1 ± 1.3−0.0 ± 1.8−0.2 ± 0.50.1 ± 0.3−0.00 ± 0.08−0.1 ± 0.5−8.4 ± 7.3−3.3 ± 3.2
        6 months−2.4 ± 1.5−2.6 ± 1.70.4 ± 1.10.1 ± 0.5−0.1 ± 0.50.01 ± 0.060.2 ± 0.4−5.9 ± 6.9−4.0 ± 3.3
    Boudou et al. (52)−3.1 ± 1.00.3 ± 1.661 ± 38−8 ± 48−0.3 ± 12.5−40 ± 13 S, −16 ± 20 V
    Cuff et al. (59)−0.1 ± 0.419 ± 32−3.6 ± 2.8−5.4 ± 4.9 S, −3.5 ± 10.0 V
    Dunstan et al. (40)−0.2 ± 0.4−0.9 ± 0.9−8 ± 8−1.7 ± 1.4−0.2 ± 0.30.2 ± 0.40.05 ± 0.05−0.4 ± 0.6
    Dunstan et al. (40) (diet)−0.5 ± 0.5−1.5 ± 1.1−9 ± 10−1.1 ± 1.60.04 ± 0.270.0 ± 0.30.02 ± 0.070.3 ± 1.3
    Fujii et al. (56)−23 ± 16
    Giannopoulou et al. (41)−1.0 ± 1.1−1.1 ± 0.9−8 ± 17−66 ± 71−0.9 ± 2.2−2 ± 16−8.4 ± 3.4 S, −7.5 ± 6.2 V−0.0 ± 2.00.2 ± 0.82.7 ± 0.70.09 ± 0.20−0.5 ± 0.9
    Khan and Rupp (63)−0.2 ± 1.21.2 ± 4.5−0.3 ± 1.3−1.6 ± 5.4−0.2 ± 0.60.06 ± 0.120.3 ± 2.9
    Lehmann et al. (61)−0.6 ± 1.00.0 ± 1.4−67 ± 42−1 ± 12−15 ± 37−3.2 ± 6.20.2 ± 0.4
    Ligtenberg et al. (49)−0.3 ± 0.8−6 ± 36−0.3 ± 0.6−0.1 ± 0.4−0.03 ± 0.09−0.2 ± 1.1
    Mourier et al. (50)−2.6 ± 0.80.1 ± 1.22 ± 1654 ± 342 ± 40−2 ± 1210 ± 41−13 ± 18 S, −48 ± 15 V−1.0 ± 8.6
    Raz et al. (51)−1.3 ± 1.9−1.7 ± 2.1−2.3 ± 7.5−0.1 ± 0.60.00 ± 0.16−0.2 ± 0.4
    Ronnemaa et al. (58)−0.9 ± 1.2−1.1 ± 2.4−17 ± 20−7 ± 39−3 ± 13
    Skarfors et al. (53)0.3 ± 2.58 ± 2913 ± 45−0.3 ± 0.8−0.0 ± 0.70.03 ± 0.09
    Vanninen et al. (64)
        Men−0.2 ± 0.9−0.5 ± 1.1−4.6 ± 5.7−0.4 ± 0.50.06 ± 0.14−0.9 ± 0.5
        Women0.0 ± 0.80.7 ± 1.0−2 ± 11−0.2 ± 0.50.08 ± 0.15−0.3 ± 0.8
    Yamnouchi et al. (43)−0.1 ± 0.745 ± 10 G, 64 ± 12 M−18 ± 30−4 ± 16
    Wing et al. (42)
        A−0.2 ± 1.1−0.5 ± 2.1−1 ± 17−16 ± 20−1 ± 110.5 ± 0.6−0.04 ± 0.160.8 ± 0.62.0 ± 7.82.0 ± 4.0
        B−0.5 ± 0.70.2 ± 1.5−1 ± 21−28 ± 44−4 ± 13−0.3 ± 0.5−0.04 ± 0.12−0.9 ± 0.54 ± 132.0 ± 7.7
    Verity and Ismail (62)0.5 ± 1.20.5 ± 2.41.0 ± 4.97.4 ± 9.0−0.1 ± 0.60.20 ± 0.26
    Meta-analyzed mean (upper, lower 90% confidence limit)−0.7 (−1.0, −0.4)−0.5 (−1.0, −0.1)−9 (−13, −5)28 (9, 49)−20 (−41, 8)−1.5 (−2.1, −1.0)−11 (−20, −1)−1.2 (−3.0, 0.6)−0.2 (−0.3, 0.0)0.1 (−0.1, 0.3)0.02 (−0.01, 0.05)−0.4 (−0.7, 0.0)−3.5 (−7.6, 0.6)−1.8 (−4.6, 1.0)
Resistance training
    Baldi and Snowling (57)−0.4 ± 0.5−0.5 ± 0.5−9 ± 1022 ± 32−63 ± 521.0 ± 1.6−9.8 ± 5.60.3 ± 0.50.4 ± 0.70.05 ± 0.11−0.2 ± 0.7
    Castaneda et al. (60)−1.0 ± 0.6−0.1 ± 0.2−0.8 ± 9.1−5.5 ± 8.1−4.1 ± 3.7−0.1 ± 0.4−0.6 ± 0.60.06 ± 0.13−0.3 ± 0.3
    Dunstan et al. (44)−0.4 ± 1.5−0.1 ± 2.7−11 ± 6−17 ± 42−2 ± 110.0 ± 18
    Dunstan et al. (39)
        3 months−0.5 ± 0.5−0.6 ± 1.5−5 ± 18−8 ± 290.2 ± 1.2−0.7 ± 2.00.2 ± 0.50.2 ± 0.5−0.05 ± 0.11−0.2 ± 0.5−1.1 ± 8.7−2.7 ± 4.5
        6 months−0.8 ± 0.6−0.8 ± 1.6−4 ± 2013 ± 200.7 ± 1.8−0.9 ± 4.9−0.2 ± 3.60.4 ± 0.50.4 ± 0.5−0.01 ± 0.11−0.1 ± 0.4−4.2 ± 8.7−3.5 ± 5.7
    Honkola et al. (45)−0.5 ± 0.6−3 ± 12−0.5 ± 0.7−0.4 ± 0.5−0.05 ± 0.19−0.0 ± 0.82.0 ± 9.62.0 ± 4.8
    Ishii et al. (46)−0.8 ± 1.445 ± 330.0 ± 10.5−27 ± 58
    Meta-analyzed mean (upper, lower 90% confidence limit)−0.5 (−1.0, −0.1)−0.3 (−1.1, 0.6)−2 (−13, 10)12 (−6, 33)−31 (−57, 10)0.5 (−0.3, 1.4)−4 (−16, 10)−2.0 (−4.6, 0.7)0.1 (−0.2, 0.4)0.0 (−0.3, 0.3)0.02 (−0.03, 0.07)0.1 (−0.6, 0.8)−1.3 (−6.5, 3.9)−1.3 (−5.4, 2.8)
Aerobic plus resistance training
    Balducci et al. (65)−1.2 ± 0.4−1.9 ± 1.4−7.0 ± 5.7−10 ± 8−3.2 ± 4.6−0.1 ± 0.3−0.0 ± 0.30.17 ± 0.09−0.6 ± 0.4−5.3 ± 6.2−5.5 ± 2.9
    Cuff et al. (59)−0.1 ± 0.575 ± 45−5.3 ± 3.4−7.8 ± 6.2 S, −10.2 ± 9.8 V
    Loimaala et al. (69)−1.0 ± 0.6−5.7 ± 4.6
    Maiorana et al. (47)−0.6 ± 0.9−2.2 ± 1.20 ± 12−9 ± 29−1.3 ± 3.50.0 ± 0.50.1 ± 0.50.10 ± 0.24
    Tessier et al. (48)−0.4 ± 0.70.4 ± 1.3−7 ± 10−28 ± 33−0.2 ± 10.8
    Meta-analyzed mean (upper, lower 90% confidence limit)−0.8 (−1.3, −0.2)−1.5 (−2.3, −0.6)−6 (−15, 4)106 (12, 280)−7 (−63, 132)−5.1 (−7.6, −2.5)−15 (−26, −2)−0.8 (−3.3, 1.7)0.3 (−0.4, 0.4)0.1 (−0.4, 0.5)0.13 (0.07, 0.20)−0.3 (−1.4, 0.8)−5.6 (−9.3, −1.8)−5.5 (−9.9, −1.1)
  • Data are mean ± 90% confidence limit, unless otherwise indicated. Data in bold are outliers excluded from the meta-analysis. G, glucose infusion rate; M, metabolic clearance rate; S, subcutaneous adipose tissue; V, visceral adipose tissue.