Table 1—

Maternal and perinatal outcomes

Type 2 diabetesType 1 diabetesP
n*93532
Prepregnancy BMI (kg/m2)28.9 ± 6.523.3 ± 3.1<0.001
Maternal weight gain during pregnancy (kg)11.7 ± 5.013.7 ± 4.2<0.001
Glycemic control during pregnancy
    A1C at admission (%)6.4 ± 1.197.2 ± 1.19<0.001
    A1C second trimester (%)5.8 ± 0.846.3 ± 0.9<0.001
    A1C third trimester (%)5.8 ± 0.766.2 ± 0.80.001
Insulin requirements
    First trimester (units/kg)0.38 ± 0.190.68 ± 0.18<0.001
    Second trimester (units/kg)0.48 ± 0.230.76 ± 0.21<0.001
    Third trimester (units/kg)0.62 ± 0.310.93 ± 0.26<0.001
Pregnancy-induced hypertension18 (19.4)82 (15.4)0.358
Preeclampsia6 (6.5)17 (3.2)0.134
Caesarean delivery41 (44.1)298 (56)0.032
Gestational age (weeks of     gestation)37.1 ± 1.636.7 ± 1.70.018
Preterm delivery28 (30.4)186 (35.4)0.406
Birth weight (g)3,182 ± 6233,243 ± 6060.375
Birth weight ratio1.09 ± 0.21.13 ± 0.180.019
Large for gestational age22 (23.9)187 (35.6)0.032
Small for gestational age3 (3.3)5 (1)0.100
Perinatal mortality1 (1.1)9 (1.7)1.000
Major congenital malformations6 (6.5)25 (4.7)0.442
Neonatal hypoglycemia24 (26.1)172 (32.8)0.226
Neonatal hyperbilirrubinemia34 (37)223 (42.5)0.359
Neonatal hypocalcemia4 (4.3)30 (5.7)0.805
Birth trauma7 (7.6)29 (5.5)0.467
Neonatal sepsis9 (9.8)55 (10.5)1.000
Neonatal polycythemia14 (15.2)71 (13.5)0.626
Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome7 (7.6)95 (18.1)0.010
  • Data are means ± SD or n (%) unless otherwise indicated.

  • *

    * In the case of stillbirths (one in type 2 and seven in type 1 diabetes), no perinatal data other than the presence of major congenital malformations was analyzed;

  • adjusted for multiplicity.