Table 2—

Prevalence and prevalence odds ratios with 95% CIs for adverse and early adverse outcome in quintiles of first-trimester A1C exposure level for all pregnancies and separately for first pregnancies

Good outcomes (n)Adverse outcomes (n)Entire cohort (n = 573)
Subcohort (n = 301)
Prevalence of adverse outcomeCrudeAdjustedCrudeAdjusted
Dependent variables for adverse pregnancy outcome
    1st quintile A1C: ≤7.0% (ref.)*1532012 (7.6–17)1 (—)1 (—)1 (—)1 (—)
    2nd quintile A1C: 7.1–7.8%931917 (11–25)1.6 (0.8–3.1)1.8 (0.8–3.9)1.4 (0.6–3.4)1.2 (0.4–3.5)
    3rd quintile A1C: 7.9–8.9%872019 (12–27)1.8 (0.9–3.5)2.1 (1.0–4.5)2.3 (0.9–5.9)2.3 (0.8–7.1)
    4th quintile A1C: 9.0–10.2%382035 (24–47)4.0 (2.0–8.2)4.2 (1.8–9.7)2.6 (1.0–6.4)2.0 (0.6–6.3)
    5th quintile A1C: ≥10.3%51979 (60–91)29.1 (9.8–86.4)30.3 (8.6–106)19.3 (5.2–71.4)16.0 (3.2–78.9)
    White class B-C (ref.)1 (—)1 (—)
    White class D-F1.1 (0.6–1.9)1.5 (0.7–3.3)
    Nonsmoking (ref.)1 (—)1 (—)
    Smoking1.1 (0.6–2.0)0.9 (0.4–2.0)
Dependent variables for early adverse pregnancy outcome
    1st quintile A1C: ≤7.2% (ref.)178189 (5.6–14)1 (—)1 (—)1 (—)1 (—)
    2nd quintile A1C: 7.3–7.9%771718 (12–27)2.2 (1.1–4.5)2.7 (1.2–6.1)1.6 (0.6–4.3)1.4 (0.4–5.1)
    3rd quintile A1C: 8.0–9.0%871616 (10–24)1.8 (0.9–3.7)2.2 (0.9–5.1)2.7 (1.0–7.6)3.5 (1.0–12.1)
    4th quintile A1C: 9.1–10.2%291737 (25–51)5.8 (2.7–12.5)6.7 (2.8–16.5)2.3 (0.8–6.5)1.9 (0.5–7.9)
    5th quintile A1C: ≥10.3%51777 (57–90)33.6 (11.1–101)35.0 (9.5–129)48.1 (8.9–259)70 (6.6–742)
    White class B-C (ref.)1 (—)1 (—)
    White class D-F0.9 (0.5–1.7)1.2 (0.4–3.1)
    Nonsmoking (ref.)1 (—)1 (—)
    Smoking1.1 (0.6–2.0)0.7 (0.3–2.0)
  • Data are OR (95% CI) except for prevalence of adverse outcome, which are % (95 % CI). Maternal White class and smoking are included in the adjusted analyses. The quintile values refer to cutoff values defined among adverse

  • (*)

    (*) and early adverse

  • (†)

    (†) outcomes in the entire cohort.