Table 1—

Characteristics of diabetic subjects

Total subjectsMale subjectsFemale subjectsP value*
n22992137
Age (years)66.1 ± 0.667.2 ± 0.865.3 ± 0.60.087
Durations of diabetes (years)8.6 ± 0.68.6 ± 0.78.6 ± 0.50.982
Smokers (current/previous/never)33/33/16327/31/346/2/129<0.001
Drinkers (current/previous/never)26/30/17321/26/455/4/128<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)26.0 ± 0.225.9 ± 0.326.1 ± 0.30.670
Hypertension152 (66.38)63 (68.48)89 (64.96)0.581
Dyslipidemia114 (49.78)42 (45.65)72 (52.55)0.306
MT-Ab (units/ml)134.58 (32.56–564.14)119.45 (32.56–564.14)145.80 (41.10–516.40)0.006
Urinary albumin (mg/g Cr)26.12 (0.97–848.89)25.66 (0.97–848.89)26.44 (1.14–724.08)0.869
Urinary β2-microglobulin (μg/g Cr)113.20 (31.87–3,856.23)104.13 (31.87–1,275.02)113.20 (36.09–3,856.23)0.273
Fasting capillary blood glucose (mmol/l)8.02 ± 0.187.95 ± 0.248.08 ± 0.260.736
Blood cadmium (μg/l)0.61 (0.03–4.54)0.64 (0.03–3.50)0.59 (0.03–4.54)0.609
Urinary cadmium (μg/g Cr)0.38 (0.05–4.17)0.32 (0.05–4.17)0.43 (0.05–2.14)0.023
  • Data are means ± SE, n (%), or GM (range) unless otherwise indicated.

  • *

    * Compared with male subjects (t test or χ2 test). Cr, creatinine.