Table 1—

Characteristics of participants in the ARIC study who did not have diabetes, dementia, or stroke at baseline

    Age (years)7,14853.7 (mean)
    Marital status
        Never married1341.87
    Education level
        Basic education (0–11 years)1,18416.58
        Intermediate education (12–16 years)3,05742.80
        Advanced education (17–21 years)2,90240.63
Diseases and expenses
    No hypertension4,27059.74
    No hyperlipidemia3,33746.68
    Depression score7,1472.18 (mean)
    Cigarette smoking status
        Never smoked3,22845.18
        Former smoker2,42433.93
        Current smoker19320.90
    Alcohol use status
        No alcohol use4,24359.36
        Alcohol use2,89440.49
    Measures of insulin resistance
        Baseline fasting insulin >12.2 mU/l1,90826.69
        Baseline fasting insulin <12.2 mU/l5,24073.30
        Baseline HOMA >2.62,60036.37
        Baseline HOMA <2.64,54863.63