Table 1—

Baseline characteristics by physical activity level*

Level of physical activity (tertiles)
LowModerateHigh
n2,829 (31)3,329 (36)2,964 (32)
Physical activity score28.1 ± 1.231.4 ± 1.038.0 ± 5.4
Age (years)61.6 ± 13.157.6 ± 12.359.1 ± 11.8
Women1,776 ± 632,065 ± 621,362 ± 46
Marital status
    Single277 (10)279 (8)177 (6)
    Married1,923 (68)2,517 (76)2,410 (81)
    Widowed514 (18)417 (13)290 (10)
    Divorced/separated72 (3)86 (3)62 (2)
Education, eighth grade or less696 (25)843 (25)738 (25)
Never smoker1,112 (39)1,222 (37)868 (29)
Former smoker662 (23)750 (23)864 (29)
Current smoker1,055 (37)1,357 (41)1,232 (42)
Baseline diseases1,543 (55)1,373 (41)1,225 (41)
BMI (kg/m2)26.2 ± 4.625.9 ± 4.126.1 ± 3.9
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)140.2 ± 24.2137.2 ± 22.6136.2 ± 20.9
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)89.0 ± 24.284.8 ± 18.084.3 ± 17.7
Total cholesterol (mg/100 ml)239.0 ± 46.7234.4 ± 43.3230.6 ± 41.6
Family history of diabetes479 (17)560 (17)508 (17)
  • Data are means ± SD or n (%).

  • * After exclusion of subjects with diabetes at baseline and missing information on physical activity.

  • Baseline diseases: cardiovascular disease, cancer, left ventricular hypertrophy, arthritis, ankle edema, or pulmonary disease.

  • Family history of diabetes defined as diabetes diagnosed in parents and/or siblings.