Table 2—

Rates of obstetrical intervention and complications in women with and without PGD in Ontario, 1996 and 2001

InterventionWomen with PGD (rate per 100 deliveries)Women without PGD (rate per 100 deliveries)Adjusted OR (95% CI)*P value for OR PGD vs. non-PGDP value for trend
Caesarean section
    19966.618.32.56 (2,258–2,893)<0.0001<0.0001
    200134.922.71.78 (1,597–1,979)<0.0001
Induction
    199631.621.41.76 (1,551–1,999)<0.00010.611
    200133.123.41.69 (1,517–1,882)<0.0001
Complication
Obstructed labor
    19968.86.71.45 (1,176–1,786)0.0010.366
    20018.47.21.27 (1,059–1,527)0.010
Shoulder dystocia
    19963.81.62.39 (1,756–3,255)<0.00010.344
    20014.22.12.00 (1,553–2,580)<0.0001
Hypertension
    19969.02.05.15 (4,169–6,353)<0.00010.110
    20018.82.54.13 (3,445–4,961)<0.0001
Preeclampsia/eclampsia
    19963.61.04.16 (3,010–5,741)<0.00010.754
    20014.11.14.44 (3,426–5,765)<0.0001
  • *

    * ORs within each year were adjusted for age, age squared, and parity (9-year lookback).

  • P value for trend is a result of modeling each outcome on PGD, age, age squared, parity, year, and year-by-PGD interaction. The P value is for the year-by-PGD interaction, to reflect the change in the effect of PGD between 1996 and 2001.