Table 1—

General and clinical parameters of healthy control subjects and type 1 diabetic patients

Control subjectsType 1 diabetic patients
NormoalbuminuriaMicroalbuminuriaDiabetic nephropathy
General patient characteristics
    n (% men)29 (66)150 (48)79 (48)89 (48)
    Age (years)42 ± 9*53 ± 13§53 ± 12§45 ± 10*
    Duration of diabetes (years)34 ± 1137 ± 10§32 ± 10
    BMI (kg/m2)24.2 ± 2.424.4 ± 4.724.8 ± 3.325.2 ± 3.4
    Retinopathy (nil/simplex/proliferative)52/1/978/2/690/10/79
    Antihypertensive treatment (ACE inhibitor/ARB/other)0/0/024/4/5847/9/3220/15/24#
Glycemic control
    Blood glucose (mmol/l)4.6 ± 0.6*§9.4 ± 4.49.1 ± 4.58.9 ± 4.7
    A1C (%)5.4 ± 0.3*§8.3 ± 1.1§8.8 ± 0.9*§8.9 ± 1.2*
Diabetic nephropathy
    UAE (mg/24 h)5 (4–7)§6 (4–11)§36 (17–68)*661 (251–1495)*
    Plasma creatinine (μmol/l)90 (78–102)§83 (74–92)§89 (80–100)§97 (84–135)*
    Estimated GFR (ml · min−1 · 1.73 m−2)80 ± 13§79 ± 15§73 ± 18§63 ± 25*
    Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)123 ± 10*§140 ± 20145 ± 20145 ± 19
    Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)74 ± 674 ± 974 ± 981 ± 12*
CTGF levels
    U-CTGF excretion (pmol/24 h)100 (78–114)§85 (48–127)§100 (65–78)§155 (96–258)*
  • Data are means ± SD or median (interquartile range), unless otherwise indicated.

  • # In the framework of participation in another study, 43 of 89 patients with diabetic nephropathy had stopped antihypertensive medication 4 weeks prior to sample collection (16).

  • * P < 0.05 vs. normoalbuminuria;

  • P < 0.05 vs. microalbuminuria;

  • P < 0.05 vs. control subjects;

  • § P < 0.05 vs. diabetic nephropathy.