Table 1—

Baseline clinical characteristics in type 1 diabetic patients with and without diabetic nephropathy

Patients with diabetic nephropathyPatients with normoalbuminuriaP value
n197191
Sex (male/female)120/77117/74NS
Age (years)41 ± 943 ± 10NS
Duration of diabetes (years)28 ± 827 ± 8NS
BMI (kg/m2)24.0 ± 3.323.6 ± 2.5NS
A1C (%)9.5 ± 1.58.5 ± 1.1<0.001
Smoking (%)5042NS
History of stroke14 (7)2 (1)<0.001
History of myocardial infarction10 (5)2 (1)<0.001
History of stroke/myocardial infarction21 (11)4 (2)<0.001
Retinopathy (nil/simplex/proliferative)0/61/13667/106/18<0.001
Urinary albumin excretion (mg/24 h)*796 (16–14,565)8 (1–30)
Serum creatinine (μmol/l)103 (54–684)76 (40–116)<0.001
GFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)74 ± 34
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)151 ± 23132 ± 18<0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)86 ± 1376 ± 10<0.001
Serum cholesterol (mmol/l)5.6 ± 1.24.8 ± 1.0<0.001
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.46 ± 0.51.56 ± 0.4<0.001
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.54 ± 1.12.82 ± 0.9<0.001
Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.22 (0.3–9.8)0.77 (0.28–3.1)<0.001
HRV (bpm)6 (0–50)13 (0–55)<0.001
HRV (abnormal/borderline/normal)151/21/2565/44/82<0.001
HRV (abnormal/borderline/normal) (%)76/11/1334/23/43
Antihypertensive treatment (%)8113<0.001
Statins (%)00
Aspirin (%)112<0.001
  • Data are means ± SD, n (%), or median (range) unless otherwise indicated.

  • *

    * Some patients with previously persistent albuminuria receiving antihypertensive medication had urinary albumin excretion <300 mg/24 h.