Table 1

Demographic characteristics among immigrants with and without language barriers

Immigrants (N = 87,707)
No language barrier (n = 54,151)Language barrier (n = 33,556)P value
Age at time of landing (years)42.3 ± 13.148.6 ± 15.0<0.001
Age at index (years)54 ± 1360 ± 15<0.001
Female sex 23,349 (43.1)19,778 (58.9)<0.001
Mother tongue
 English17,051 (31.5)24 (0.1)<0.001
 French160 (0.3)0 (0.0)
 Other36,930 (68.2)33,532 (99.9)
Region of birth
 Caribbean7,923 (14.6)171 (0.5)<0.001
 East Asia and Pacific + Australia/ New Zealand10,645 (19.7)10,172 (30.3)
 East Europe and Central Asia2,406 (4.4)4,141 (12.3)
 Latin America and Mexico6,087 (11.2)1,699 (5.1)
 North Africa and Middle East3,339 (6.2)2,468 (7.4)
 South Asia16,935 (31.2)12,197 (36.3)
 Sub-Saharan Africa4,172 (7.7)903 (2.7)
 Western Europe and U.S.2,623 (4.9)1,784 (5.3)
 Missing21 (0.0)20 (0.1)
Time since landing (years)11.5 ± 4.611.8 ± 4.3<0.001
 Missing262 (0.5)16 (0.0)
Immigration class
 Economic
  Principal16,402 (30.3)2,884 (8.6)<0.001
  Family6,216 (11.5)2,750 (8.2)
 Family reunification20,817 (38.4)22,157 (66.0)
 Refugee9,226 (17.0)5,243 (15.6)
 Other952 (1.8)35 (0.1)
 Missing538 (1.0)487 (1.5)
Level of education
 No education856 (1.6)4,272 (12.7)<0.001
 Secondary school or less27,699 (51.2)23,211 (69.2)
 Trade/apprenticeship, certificate/ diploma9,400 (17.4)3,051 (9.1)
 University degree or higher13,156 (24.3)2,726 (8.2)
 Missing3,040 (5.6)296 (0.9)
Marital status
 Single11,386 (21.0)4,052 (12.1)<0.001
 Married37,667 (69.6)24,281 (72.4)
 Widowed or divorced5,090 (9.4)5,223 (15.6)
 Missing8 (0.0)0 (0.0)
Income quintile of neighborhood of  settlement
 Q1 (lowest income)18,522 (34.2)11,453 (34.1)<0.001
 Q213,087 (24.2)8,842 (26.3)
 Q310,376 (19.2)6,365 (19.0)
 Q47,363 (13.6)4,246 (12.7)
 Q5 (highest income)4,746 (8.8)2,622 (7.8)
 Missing57 (0.1)28 (0.1)
Comorbidities
 Hypertension34,377 (63.5)23,772 (70.8)<0.001
 Chronic renal failure1,751 (3.2)1,152 (3.4)0.108
 Prior cardiovascular disease*9,572 (17.7)7,122 (21.2)<0.001
Diabetes-related characteristics
 Age at diagnosis (years)48.2 ± 12.5854.6 ± 14.0<0.001
 Duration of diabetes
  <2 years12,210 (22.5)6,853 (20.4)<0.001
  2–5 years16,306 (30.1)9,933 (29.6)
  5–10 years15,517 (28.7)10,373 (30.9)
  >10 years10,099 (18.6)6,384 (19.0)
  Missing19 (0.0)13 (0.0)
Health care utilization
 Outpatient visits in year before index with primary care for any diagnosis7.8 ± 11.28.6 ± 12.1<0.001
 Resource utilization band
  Nonusers1,214 (2.2)934 (2.8)<0.001
  Health users825 (1.5)392 (1.2)
  Low morbidity3,740 (6.9)1,898 (5.7)
  Moderate morbidity30,327 (56.0)17,691 (52.7)
  High morbidity13,242 (24.5)9,100 (27.1)
  Very high morbidity4,803 (8.9)3,541 (10.6)
  • Data are presented as mean ± SD or n (%).

  • *Myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, unstable angina, coronary bypass graft surgery, percutaneous coronary intervention, stroke, transient ischemic attack.