Table 2

Risk of complications for immigrants with diabetes by language barrier (N = 87,707)

NNo. eventsPerson-yearsEvent rate*Unadjusted model HR (95% CI)Full model** HR (95% CI)
Acute complicationsa
 Language barrier54,1512,684212,9591.261.12 (1.06–1.17)0.99 (0.93–1.05)
 No language barrier33,5563,9531.00
Cardiovascular eventb or death
 Language barrier54,1416,200210,3272.951.37 (1.33–1.42)0.95 (0.91–0.99)
 No language barrier33,5567,4851.00
  • aAcute complications include hypo- or hyperglycemia, soft tissue ulcer, or infection.

  • bCardiovascular event includes unstable angina, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, transient ischemic attack, stroke.

  • *Number of events per 100 person-years.

  • **Adjusted for age at landing, sex, years in Canada, baseline comorbidities (hypertension, cardiovascular disease, chronic renal failure), SES, neighborhood at index date, country of origin, immigrant class, level of education, marital status, number of primary care visits, resource utilization band.