Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of the study population by level of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption

Caffeinated coffee
Decaffeinated coffee
No cups per dayLess than one cup per dayOne cup per dayTwo to three cups per dayFour or more cups per dayNo cups dayLess than one cup per dayOne cup per dayTwo or more cups per day
n (participants)33,37514,02011,29221,6727,90056,72819,6055,9995,927
Age (years)35.635.436.236.837.635.836.237.138.2
BMI (kg/m2)24.924.624.224.124.624.824.124.024.2
Physical activity (MET h/week)20.320.622.021.821.420.621.222.222.3
Current smoker (%)6.77.710.016.935.613.79.08.713.3
Family history of diabetes (%)16.115.615.415.717.616.315.015.715.7
Hypertension (%)
Hypercholesterolemia (%)
Ever hormone replacement therapy (%)
Current oral contraceptive use (%)10.712.
Dietary intake
    Total energy (kcal/day)1,7771,7811,7871,7881,8321,7681,8221,8191,829
    Alcohol consumption (g/day)
    P:S ratio0.520.530.530.520.510.520.530.540.53
    Cereal fiber (g/day)
    Glycemic index54.654.153.753.252.554.153.753.352.6
    Processed meat (servings/day)
    Sugar-sweetened soft drinks (servings/day)
    High-fat dairy (servings/day)
    Low-fat dairy (servings/day)
    Tea (cups/day)
    Decaffeinated coffee (cups/day)
    Caffeinated coffee (cups/day)
    Magnesium (g/day)302312318327344307324335346
    Caffeine (mg/day)80118204415747253249205198
  • Data are means, unless otherwise indicated. Data, except age, were directly standardized to the age distribution of entire cohort. MET, metabolic equivalent, P:S ratio, ratio of polyunsaturated and saturated fat intake.