Table 1—

Age-adjusted characteristics of the Nurses Health Study cohort by total vitamin D and calcium intake at baseline (1980)

CharacteristicTotal vitamin D intake (IU/day)
Total calcium intake (mg/day)
Number of women42,73119,98611,0946,3453,62332,58423,01613,8677,8206,519
Vitamin D intake (IU/day)
    Dietary only10823619722726893154208271362
Calcium intake (mg/day)
    Dietary only58487780887795345769288410781374
Age (years)46.045.946.146.446.645.846.
State of residence (% southern states)*19182121252019191819
BMI (kg/m2)24.324.323.924.
Family history of diabetes (%)25242424232425242524
History of high cholesterol (%)5556655555
History of hypertension (%)15141516151614141415
Current smoker (%)31262724253227262626
Physical activity (h of moderate/ vigorous activity per week)
Caffeine intake (mg/day)422381375363364381419413394393
Alcohol consumption (g/day)
Current use (%)
    Specific vitamin D supplement2234523333
    Calcium supplement69161922810111214
Magnesium intake (mg/day)281304302308313258296317331352
Retinol (IU/day)2,5244,2018,15210,66316,9613,9064,7185,5465,9877,965
Dairy foods (servings/day)
Milk (servings/day)
    Saturated fat (% daily energy intake)15.915.415.614.914.415.915.615.315.315.2
    Polyunsaturated fat (% daily energy intake)
    Trans fatty acids (% daily energy intake)
    Cereal fiber (g/day)
    Glycemic load/10086868586868786858482
  • Data are means unless otherwise indicated. Intakes of alcohol, caffeine, vitamin D, calcium, magnesium, retinol, cereal fiber, and glycemic load are adjusted for total daily energy intake.

  • * Southern states are California, Florida, and Texas. Northern states are Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. †Glycemic load is the sum of (glycemic index of individual food [white bread as reference = 1] × carbohydrate content of the food item) for each food.