Table 1—

Cox regression analysis for the estimation of risk for progression to clinical disease among 701 siblings of children with recently diagnosed type 1 diabetes and in a subgroup of 77 siblings with metabolic data available

Baseline characteristicsAll siblings (n = 701)
Siblings positive for autoantibodies at baseline (n = 77)
CrudeAdjusted*CrudeAdjusted
Age at first sampling (years)0.83 (0.77–0.91)0.76 (0.68–0.84)0.87 (0.79–0.96)0.78 (0.68–0.89)
Sex (boys vs. girls)0.88 (0.49–1.55)0.84 (0.41–1.7)
HLA-DR allele (high and moderate vs. low and decreased risk)7.2 (2.8–18.2)2.9 (1.1–7.6)7.7 (1.8–32.5)5.7 (1.3–25.2)
Antibody positivity (for diabetes-related autoantibodies ≥2 vs. 0–1)55.9 (30.0–104.1)54.1 (27.8–105.0)6.5 (2.9–14.7)3.6 (1.5–8.8)
Number of affected first-degree relatives (at the time of diagnosis in the index case ≥1 vs. 0)3.3 (1.6–6.6)3.2 (1.6–6.6)2.0 (0.78–5.3)
FPIR (decreased vs. normal)10.9 (4.7–25.4)4.7 (1.9–11.6)
Kg (decreased vs. normal)1.8 (0.83–3.9)
HOMA-IR1.0 (0.84–1.3)
HOMA-IR/FPIR (natural logarithm)3.1 (1.8–5.3)2.4 (1.2–5.0)
  • Data are hazard ratios (95% CI).

  • * Adjusted for all the other variables in column 2.

  • Adjusted for all the other variables in column 4.