Table 3

LME models of intervention on primary and secondary outcomes among Connecticut Latinos with T2D participating in the DIALBEST trial

OutcomeControlCHWGroup! differenceP value
Primary outcome
 HbA1c (%)@9.36 (8.96, 9.75)8.85 (8.41, 9.28)−0.51 (−0.83, −0.19)0.002
 HbA1c (mmol/mol)78.8 (74.4, 83.1)73.2 (68.4, 78.0)−5.57 (−9.11, −2.03)0.002
 HbA1c (%)@@0.002~
  Baseline9.76 (9.35, 10.2)9.70 (9.30, 10.1)−0.06 (−0.44, 0.33)0.780
  3 months9.19 (8.71, 9.67)8.77 (8.34, 9.17)−0.42 (−0.83, −0.01)0.043
  6 months9.28 (8.90, 9.66)8.81 (8.37, 9.26)−0.47 (−0.93, 0.00010.050
  12 months9.42 (9.07, 9.77)8.85 (8.47, 9.23)−0.57 (−1.04, −0.09)0.021
  18 months9.32 (8.91, 9.74)8.77 (8.35, 9.20)−0.55 (−0.96, −0.14)0.009
 HbA1c (mmol/mol)@@0.002~
  Baseline83.2 (78.7, 87.6)82.6 (78.1, 87.0)−0.61 (−4.85, 3.64)0.780
  3 months76.9 (71.7, 82.2)72.3 (67.7, 77.0)−4.62 (−9.09, −0.14)0.043
  6 months77.9 (73.7, 82.1)72.8 (67.9, 77.7)−5.10 (−10.2, −0.002)0.050
  12 months79.4 (75.6, 83.3)73.3 (69.1, 77.4)−6.18 (−11.4, −0.96)0.021
  18 months78.4 (73.9, 83.0)72.4 (67.7, 77.0)−6.01 (−10.5, −1.50)0.009
 HbA1c percent change (%)*−0.96 (−4.96, 3.04)−6.48 (−11.0, −1.99)−5.52 (−8.93, −2.11)0.002
 HbA1c percent change (mmol/mol)*−0.68 (−5.89, 4.53)−8.01 (−13.9, −2.13)−7.33 (−11.9, −2.81)0.002
 HbA1c percent change (%)**0.002~
  3 months−2.26 (−7.69, 3.17)−6.90 (−11.9, −1.93)−4.64 (−9.17, −0.11)0.045
  6 months−1.48 (−6.00, 3.03)−6.40 (−11.6, −1.24)−4.92 (−10.0, 0.19)0.059
  12 months0.16 (−3.75, 4.08)−6.02 (−10.4, −1.63)−6.19 (−11.1, −1.24)0.015
  18 months−0.39 (−5.17, 4.38)−6.76 (−11.8, −1.72)−6.37 (−11.1, −1.64)0.009
 HbA1c percent change (mmol/mol)**0.002~
  3 months−2.45 (−9.51, 4.61)−8.55(−15.1, −2.04)−6.10 (−12.1, −0.12)0.046
  6 months−1.44 (−7.35, 4.48)−7.90 (−14.7, −1.09)−6.47 (−13.2, 0.26)0.059
  12 months0.81 (−4.32, 5.94)−7.45 (−13.2, −1.70)−8.26 (−14.7, −1.82)0.012
  18 months0.19 (−6.04, 6.41)−8.35 (−15.0, −1.74)−8.54 (−14.8, −2.26)0.008
Secondary outcomes
 Glucose (mmol/L)#11.3 (10.4, 12.3)10.3 (9.26, 11.3)−1.08 (−1.78, −0.39)0.002
 Glucose (mmol/L)##0.002~
  Baseline11.3 (10.4, 12.3)11.3 (10.3, 12.2)−0.06 (−1.05, 0.94)0.913
  3 months10.9 (9.64, 12.1)10.1 (9.12, 11.2)−0.75 (−1.84, 0.34)0.179
  6 months10.7 (9.74, 11.7)10.3 (9.37, 11.3)−0.43 (−1.50, 0.65)0.434
  12 months11.6 (10.7, 12.5)10.2 (9.07, 11.4)−1.38 (−2.52, −0.25)0.018
  18 months11.7 (10.8, 12.6)9.92 (8.75, 11.1)−1.79 (−2.94, −0.64)0.003
 Triglycerides (mmol/L)$1.65 (1.53, 1.79)1.59 (1.47, 1.73)−0.05 (−0.23, 0.13)0.549
 Triglycerides (mmol/L)$$0.523~
  Baseline1.68 (1.53, 1.85)1.73 (1.57, 1.90)0.05 (−0.18, 0.27)
  3 months1.59 (1.41, 1.77)1.63 (1.46, 1.81)0.04 (−0.23, 0.31)
  6 months1.68 (1.51, 1.86)1.53 (1.36, 1.69)−0.16 (−0.40, 0.08)
  12 months1.66 (1.46, 1.86)1.56 (1.37, 1.75)−0.11 (−0.40, 0.19)
  18 months1.74 (1.55, 1.93)1.67 (1.49, 1.86)−0.06 (−0.36, 0.24)
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L)%4.51 (4.38, 4.64)4.56 (4.40, 4.71)−0.05 (−0.17, 0.28)0.628
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L)%%0.865~
  Baseline4.60 (4.40, 4.79)4.61 (4.43, 4.82)0.01 (−0.26, 0.28)
  3 months4.48 (4.30, 4.69)4.53 (4.35, 4.74)0.04 (−0.24, 0.32)
  6 months4.62 (4.40, 4.82)4.62 (4.43, 4.82)−0.00 (−0.28, 0.29)
  12 months4.53 (4.33, 4.71)4.62 (4.43, 4.82)0.09 (−0.20, 0.38)
  18 months4.55 (4.33, 4.77)4.49 (4.20, 4.79)−0.06 (−0.48, 0.36)
 HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)^1.39 (1.34, 1.44)1.40 (1.36, 1.45)0.01 (−0.05, 0.08)0.720
 HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)^^0.564~
  Baseline1.35 (1.30, 1.41)1.33 (1.27, 1.39)−0.02 (−0.10, 0.06)
  3 months1.33 (1.28, 1.39)1.39 (1.31, 1.45)0.05 (−0.05, 0.14)
  6 months1.39 (1.31, 1.47)1.36 (1.30, 1.43)0.03 (−0.12, 0.07)
  12 months1.39 (1.32, 1.46)1.47 (1.40, 1.53)0.08 (−0.02, 0.18)
  18 months1.40 (1.34, 1.47)1.40 (1.33, 1.47)−0.003 (−0.08, 0.08)
 LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)&2.39 (2.26, 2.52)2.45 (2.30, 2.62)0.06 (−0.15, 0.27)0.564
 LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)&&0.598~
  Baseline2.39 (2.34, 2.69)2.58 (2.40, 2.75)0.06 (−0.19, 0.32)
  3 months2.41 (2.23, 2.59)2.46 (2.26, 2.46)0.05 (−0.22, 0.31)
  6 months2.46 (2.26, 2.67)2.55 (2.35, 2.75)0.09 (−0.20, 0.37)
  12 months2.38 (2.19, 2.56)2.42 (2.22, 2.62)0.04 (−0.22, 0.31)
  18 months2.38 (2.17, 2.59)2.36 (2.10, 2.62)−0.02 (−0.43, 0.40)
 Weight (kg)+86.1 (83.7, 88.4)86.0 (83.3, 88.7)−0.07 (−3.34, 3.19)0.964
 Weight (kg)++0.964~
  Baseline84.8 (82.2, 87.5)85.3 (82.7, 87.9)0.49 (−3.24, 4.21)
  3 months86.9 (83.4, 90.3)85.3 (82.1, 88.4)−1.62 (−6.69, 3.44)
  6 months85.9 (82.9, 88.9)85.3 (82.1, 88.5)−0.60 (−5.03, 3.83)
  12 months86.4 (82.3, 90.5)87.3 (84.0, 90.6)0.90 (−3.31, 5.11)
  18 months85.4 (82.5, 88.2)85.9 (81.6, 90.3)0.54 (−5.70, 6.78)
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)=116 (115, 118)118 (116, 120)1.71 (−1.45, 4.86)0.279
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)==0.313~
  Baseline119 (116, 121)120 (117, 123)1.50 (−2.40, 5.39)
  3 months115 (112, 117)117 (114, 119)2.09 (−1.74, 5.92)
  6 months118 (114, 121)117 (113, 120)−1.02 (−7.11, 5.08)
  12 months118 (114, 121)119 (117, 122)1.20 (−2.70, 5.11)
  18 months116 (113, 119)119 (116, 122)2.87 (−1.74, 7.47)
  • Data are mean (95% CI).

  • !Reference is the control group.

  • @Models of HbA1c % and HbA1c change gave identical results. Models included group, time, baseline HbA1c level, age, and antidiabetic medications.

  • @@Models of HbA1c % and HbA1c change gave identical group mean difference results. Models included group, time, group-by-time interaction, baseline HbA1c level, age, and antidiabetic medications.

  • ~Overall effect P value; P values for time point comparisons not reported if P > 0.05.

  • *Model included group, time, baseline HbA1c level, age, and antidiabetic medications.

  • **Model included group, time, group-by-time interaction, baseline HbA1c level, age, and antidiabetic medications.

  • #Model included group, time, baseline glucose level, age, and antidiabetic medications.

  • ##Model included group, time, group-by-time interaction, baseline glucose level, age, and antidiabetic medications.

  • $Model included group, time, baseline triglyceride level, glucose level, and total cholesterol level.

  • $$Model included group, time, group-by-time interaction, baseline triglyceride level, glucose level, and total cholesterol level.

  • %Model included group, time, baseline total cholesterol level, triglyceride level, and anticholesterol medications.

  • %%Model included group, time, group-by-time interaction, baseline total cholesterol level, triglyceride level, and anticholesterol medications.

  • ^Model included baseline HDL level and triglyceride level.

  • ^^Model included group, time, group-by-time interaction, baseline HDL level, and triglyceride level.

  • &Model included group, time, baseline LDL level, triglyceride level, and anticholesterol medications.

  • &&Model included group, time, group-by-time interaction, baseline LDL level, triglyceride level, and anticholesterol medications.

  • +Model included group, time, and baseline weight.

  • ++Model included group, time, group-by-time interaction, and baseline weight.

  • =Model included group, time, baseline systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol level, and antihypertension medications.

  • ==Model included group, time, group-by-time interaction, baseline systolic hypertension, total cholesterol level, and antihypertension medications.