Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of the study participants, grouped according to vitamin D status

VariablesWithout hypovitaminosis D [25(OH)D: 29.0 ± 9 ng/ml]With hypovitaminosis D [25(OH)D: 13.6 ± 3.3 ng/ml]P
n180279
Sex (% men)74570.001
Age (years)61 ± 762 ± 7NS
BMI (kg/m2)29.2 ± 4.529.7 ± 5.1NS
Waist circumference (cm)106.8 ± 12107 ± 12NS
Diabetes duration (years)11 ± 812 ± 8NS
Diet only (%)1714NS
Oral hypoglycemic agents only (%)6457NS
Insulin treatment (%)19290.01
Statin users (%)20.631.20.01
Aspirin users (%)20.633.70.01
Current smokers (%)16.719.7NS
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)144 ± 18145 ± 17NS
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)80 ± 780 ± 8NS
A1C (%)7.0 ± 1.37.4 ± 1.30.01
(ln)triglycerides (mmol/l)1.74 ± 0.82.02 ± 1.30.01
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.33 ± 0.31.36 ± 0.4NS
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.49 ± 0.93.40 ± 0.9NS
Creatinine (μmol/l)74 ± 1576 ± 18NS
Calcium (mmol/l)2.35 ± 0.12.38 ± 0.2NS
Fibrinogen (g/l)4.02 ± 0.94.56 ± 0.90.001
(ln)hs-CRP (mg/l)3.85 ± 5.45.10 ± 6.70.001
Microalbuminuria (%)1818.4NS
Macroalbuminuria (%)5.86.5NS
Adult Treatment Panel III: metabolic syndrome (%)78.784.2NS
Cardiovascular disease (%)
    “Aggregate” end point24.435.50.01
    Coronary9.522.90.001
    Cerebrovascular7.813.50.06
    Peripheral9.98.0NS
  • Data are the means ± SD, unless otherwise indicated. Differences were assessed by the unpaired t test (for normally distributed variables) and by the χ2 test (for categorical variables).