Table 1—

Patient characteristics

Total
n408
Age (years)58.1 ± 11.4
Ethnicity
    Asian/Pacific Islander75 (18)
    African American100 (25)
    Hispanic165 (40)
    White/non-Hispanic51 (12)
    Native American2 (0.5)
    Multiethnic6 (1.5)
    Other11 (3)
Household annual income <$20,000379 (93)
Years with diabetes9.5 ± 8.0
Treatment regimen
    Diet alone23 (6)
    Oral hypoglycemic alone223 (54)
    Insulin alone49 (12)
    Insulin and oral hypoglycemic113 (28)
    Received diabetes education318 (78)
Health literacy
    Inadequate (s-TOFHLA score 0–16)156 (38.25)
    Marginal (s-TOFHLA score 17–22)54 (13.25)
    Adequate (s-TOFHLA score 23–36)198 (48.5)
Language
    Spanish148 (36)
    English260 (64)
  • Data are means ±SD or n (%).