Table 3—

Association between self-efficacy score and self-management outcomes

ModelDiet coefficient*Exercise coefficient*SMBG OR*Foot care OR*Medication OR*
A. Unadjusted0.16 (0.072–0.24)0.11 (0.026–0.19)1.18 (1.06–1.33)1.23 (1.13–1.43)1.04 (0.93–1.17), NS
B. Adjusted for diabetes factors0.14 (0.06–0.23)0.09 (0.015–0.18)1.16 (1.03–1.31)1.22 (1.10–1.41)1.10 (0.94–1.20), NS
C. Adjusted for above and race/ ethnicity0.15 (0.065–0.23)0.09 (0.011–0.18)1.15 (1.10–1.42)1.24 (1.04–1.33)1.05 (0.94–1.20), NS
D. Final model: adjusted for above and health literacy§0.16 (0.075–0.24)0.10 (0.020–0.19)1.14 (1.04–1.33)1.27 (1.13–1.45)1.08 (0.96–1.22), NS
  • Sequential models with addition of significant covariates are shown. All P values are <0.05 except where indicated by NS.

  • *

    * Regression coefficients/odds ratios (ORs) for a 10-point increase in the 0- to 100-point self-efficacy scale.

  • Adjusted for duration of diabetes and insulin use.

  • Adjusted for duration of diabetes, insulin use, and race/ethnicity.

  • §

    § Adjusted for duration of diabetes, insulin use, race/ethnicity, and literacy score.