Table 1—

Characteristics of participants by presence or absence of low ABI (<0.9) and metabolic syndrome by ATP III criteria

Neither low ABI nor ATP III metabolic syndromeLow ABI without ATP III metabolic syndromeATP III metabolic syndrome without low ABILow ABI and ATP III metabolic syndromeP
n93616727391
Mean age (years)64.4 ± 5.666.3 ± 5.6*64.5 ± 5.567.7 ± 5.1*<0.0001
Men475 (51)72 (43)138 (51)41 (45)0.246
Mean BMI (kg/m2)24.7 ± 3.324.3 ± 3.528.8 ± 4.1*28.6 ± 4.1*<0.0001
Smoker at baseline216 (23)76 (46)*53 (19)32 (35)*<0.0001
Mean systolic blood pressure (mmHg)139 ± 22152 ± 28*152 ± 21*166 ± 24*<0.0001
Mean total cholesterol (mmol/l)6.9 ± 1.37.3 ± 1.3*7.2 ± 1.4*7.3 ± 1.5*<0.0001
Mean LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)5.1 ± 1.25.5 ± 1.2*5.6 ± 1.3*5.6 ± 1.3*<0.0001
Mean HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.5 ± 0.41.5 ± 0.4*1.2 ± 0.3*1.2 ± 0.3*<0.0001
Triglyceride (mmol/l)1.21 (1.18–1.24)1.36 (1.28–1.43)*2.18 (2.06–2.28)*2.11 (1.92–1.31)*<0.0001
Diabetes (known and newly diagnosed)37 (4.0)9 (5.4)58 (21.3)*27 (29.7)*<0.0001
History of myocardial infarction, angina, stroke, or intermittent claudication at baseline56 (6.0)38 (22.8)*30 (11.0)*26 (28.6)*<0.0001
Mean ABI1.09 ± 0.110.75 ± 0.14*1.08 ± 0.10*0.72 ± 0.17*<0.0001
Deaths from all causes during follow-up305 (33)93 (56)*106 (39)50 (55)*<0.0001
Deaths from CVD during follow-up109 (12)40 (24)*46 (17)*31 (34)*<0.0001
Fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular events during follow-up381 (41)95 (57)*134 (49)*64 (70)*<0.0001
  • Data are means ± SD, n (%), or geometric mean (transformed 95% CI). P values by ANOVA for continuous variables and χ2 tests for categorical variables are given.

  • * P < 0.05 vs. group with neither a low ABI nor the metabolic syndrome;

  • P < 0.05 vs. group with a low ABI without the metabolic syndrome;

  • P < 0.05 vs. group with the metabolic syndrome without a low ABI.