Table 1

Metabolic and demographic characteristics

Total groupNormal HbVariant Hb
ParameterN = 216*n = 170n = 46P value
Male (%)6869630.41
Age (years)37 ± 1037 ± 1037 ± 100.72
BMI (kg/m2)27.6 ± 4.627.8 ± 4.826.8 ± 3.70.23
Waist circumference (cm)90 ± 1291 ± 1288 ± 100.22
Visceral adipose tissue (cm3) (n = 209)95 ± 7196 ± 7093 ± 730.80
Hemoglobin (g/L)140 ± 13140 ± 13141 ± 110.89
Hematocrit (%)41.9 ± 3.342.1 ± 3.440.9 ± 2.80.03
MCV (fl)84.3 ± 5.485.1 ± 5.381.1 ± 4.8<0.01
Reticulocyte absolute (×103/µL) (n = 96)63.5 ± 22.663.4 ± 23.864.1 ± 18.50.90
Reticulocyte (%) (n = 96)1.26 ± 0.481.27 ± 0.511.26 ± 0.360.97
Iron (µmol/L) (n = 96)15 ± 515 ± 516 ± 40.40
Transferrin (g/L) (n = 96)2.45 ± 0.352.47 ± 0.362.41 ± 0.300.51
Saturation (%) (n = 96)25 ± 925 ± 927 ± 80.34
Ferritin (pmol/L) (n = 96)252 ± 207252 ± 213252 ± 1890.98
Vitamin B12 (pmol/mL)545 ± 271546 ± 278539 ± 2440.87
Folate (nmol/L)30.8 ± 11.630.6 ± 11.331.5 ± 12.90.65
Bilirubin total (µmol/L)10.4 ± 5.810.1 ± 5.112.1 ± 7.40.03
Bilirubin direct (µmol/L)2.4 ± 1.22.4 ± 1.22.7 ± 1.20.04
Alanine aminotransferase (units/L)33 ± 1633 ± 1632 ± 140.77
Aspartate aminotransferase (units/L)23 ± 1423 ± 1521 ± 70.33
Blood urea nitrogen (mmol/L)4.3 ± 1.14.3 ± 1.13.9 ± 0.70.46
Creatinine (µmol/L)80 ± 1780 ± 1778 ± 140.47
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)110 ± 19110 ± 20109 ± 160.83
A1C (%) 5.5 ± 0.75.5 ± 0.75.4 ± 0.60.17
A1C (mmol/mol)37 ± 7.737 ± 7.7 36 ± 6.6
Abnormal glucose tolerance (%)§3334330.91
Diabetes (%)65110.12
Prediabetes (%)2730240.46
Fasting glucose (mmol/L)5.1 ± 0.75.1 ± 0.85.0 ± 0.60.90
2-h glucose (mmol/L)7.3 ± 2.27.3 ± 2.27.3 ± 2.30.97
SI ([mU/L]−1 min−1) (n = 174)4.25 ± 2.774.25 ± 2.604.25 ± 3.350.99
AIRg (mU L−1 min) (n = 174)670 ± 435678 ± 450642 ± 3840.66
Less than 1 drink/week (%)7578670.15
Smoker (%)5600.21
Married (%)4444460.85
College graduate (%)6766700.69
Median income ($)45,00040,00050,0000.08
Health insurance (%)6564700.49
  • eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.

  • * Unless noted otherwise, results available for all 216 participants and presented as mean ± SD.

  • Comparison by unpaired t tests for continuous variables and χ2 for categorical variables.

  • Based on the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study Equation.

  • § Defined by 2-h glucose ≥7.8 mmol/L.

  • Defined by 2-h glucose ≥11.1 mmol/L.

  • Defined by 2-h glucose ≥7.8 mmol/L and <11.1 mmol/L.