Table 2—

Usual losses of fluids and electrolytes in DKA and normal maintenance requirements

Average losses per kg (range)Maintenance requirements
Water70 (30–100) ml1,500 ml/m2
Sodium∼6 (5–13) mmol45 mmol/m2
Potassium∼5 (3–6) mmol35 mmol/m2
Chloride∼4 (3–9) mmol30 mmol/m2
Phosphate∼0.5–2.5 mmol0.5–1.5 mmol/kg*
  • Data are from measurements in only a few children and adolescents (ref. 30). *See ref. 114.