Table 2—

Antihypertensive medication use and the age-adjusted and multivariate relative risk of incident, symptomatic type 2 diabetes in hypertensive older women (NHS I), 1994–2002

MedicationCasesPerson-yearsAge-adjusted RR (95% CI)Multivariate RR (95% CI)*
Thiazide diuretics
    No723193,2711.0 (referent)1.0 (referent)
    Yes24351,3891.30 (1.12–1.50)1.20 (1.04–1.40)
β-Blockers
    No668183,0531.0 (referent)1.0 (referent)
    Yes29861,6081.34 (1.17–1.54)1.25 (1.08–1.43)
Calcium channel blockers
    No749196,5861.0 (referent)1.0 (referent)
    Yes21748,0741.19 (1.02–1.39)1.08 (0.92–1.26)
ACE inhibitors
    No578149,9701.0 (referent)1.0 (referent)
    Yes13338,0160.89 (0.74–1.08)0.91 (0.75–1.10)
Other
    No811212,3451.0 (referent)1.0 (referent)
    Yes15532,3151.27 (1.07–1.51)1.19 (1.00–1.42)
  • *

    * Adjusted for age (continuous), BMI (continuous), use of each class of antihypertensive medication (yes or no), physical activity (quintiles), smoking (current, past, or never), family history of diabetes, alcohol intake (seven categories), quintiles of dietary intake (glycemic load, calcium, magnesium, saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, trans fat, and cereal fiber), medication use (furosemide, digoxin, and lipid-lowering medications), menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy (current, past, or never), and comorbid conditions (coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation, and congestive heart failure).

  • Follow-up began in 1996.