Table 4—

Antihypertensive medication use and the age-adjusted and multivariate relative risk of incident, symptomatic type 2 diabetes in hypertensive men (HPFS), 1986–2002

MedicationCasesPerson-yearsAge-adjusted RR (95% CI)Multivariate RR (95% CI)*
Thiazide diuretics
    No461135,0351.0 (referent)1.0 (referent)
    Yes14131,2171.37 (1.12–1.67)1.31 (1.07–1.60)
β-Blockers
    No423124,3841.0 (referent)1.0 (referent)
    Yes17941,8681.26 (1.06–1.50)1.21 (1.01–1.45)
Calcium channel blockers
    No491138,9551.0 (ref)1.0 (ref)
    Yes11127,2971.13 (0.92–1.40)1.03 (0.83–1.28)
Other
    No487134,7441.0 (referent)1.0 (referent)
    Yes11531,5080.97 (0.79–1.20)0.94 (0.76–1.16)
  • *

    * Adjusted for age (continuous), BMI (continuous), use of each class of antihypertensive medication (yes or no), physical activity (quintiles), smoking (current, past, or never), family history of diabetes, alcohol intake (seven categories), quintiles of dietary intake (glycemic load, calcium, magnesium, saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, trans fat, and cereal fiber), medication use (furosemide, digoxin, and lipid-lowering medications), and comorbid conditions (coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation, and congestive heart failure).