Table 1—

Distribution of demographic and clinical variables among healthy control, newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic, and known type 2 diabetic participants

ControlNewly diagnosed diabetesKnown diabetesP
n474948
Age (years)58.3 ± 9.759.8 ± 9.758.9 ± 9.20.74
Men (%)72.371.462.50.64
Current smoker (%)31.938.839.60.70
Alcohol user (≥1 unit/week) (%)31.942.918.80.04
Fasting blood glucose (mg/dl)87.7 ± 7.9153.4 ± 38.6*136.8 ± 36.8<0.01
A1C (%)8.1 ± 1.7
CRP (mg/l)§1.2 ± 1.31.7 ± 2.13.1 ± 4.6<0.01
Iron (μg/dl)§95.5 ± 41.9120.1 ± 53.9101.2 ± 33.30.29
Ferritin (ng/ml)§83.2 ± 56.7137.0 ± 90.9174.5 ± 137.4<0.01
Transferrin saturation (%)§32.0 ± 15.429.4 ± 11.733.0 ± 11.20.23
Hemoglobin (g/dl)13.1 ± 1.213.2 ± 1.614.2 ± 1.5<0.01
GGT (units/l)13.3 ± 5.350.6 ± 55.3*70.7 ± 66.5<0.01
ALT (units/l)13.3 ± 8.230.0 ± 27.8*34.6 ± 22.6<0.01
AST (units/l)19.5 ± 7.027.3 ± 13.8*28.6 ± 12.6<0.01
  • Data are arithmetic means ± SD or proportion. P values were based on one-way ANOVA, and multiple comparisons were performed by Scheffe’s test:

  • *

    * control vs. newly diagnosed diabetes;

  • control vs. known diabetes;

  • newly diagnosed diabetes vs. known diabetes. All serum variables, except hemoglobin, were transformed using the natural logarithm before ANOVA, and multiple comparisons were performed.

  • §

    § Iron, ferritin, percent transferrin saturation, and CRP were measured only among 116 study subjects (33 in the control, 36 in the newly diagnosed diabetes, and 47 in the known diabetes groups).