Table 1—

Maternal demographic and delivery details

Control subjectsGDM subjectsType 2 diabetic subjects
n9513839
Age (years)29.3 ± 6.433.0 ± 5.9*34.8 ± 5.2*
Parity
    0231210
    1–24438*41
    ≥3325149
Early pregnancy weight (kg)86.5 ± 19.7102.0 ± 19.9*98.5 ± 21.5*
BMI in early pregnancy (kg/m2)32.5 ± 6.9 (n = 70)38.0 ± 6.9 (n = 111)*36.4 ± 7.4 (n = 35)*
Booking systolic blood pressure (mmHg)111 ± 11 (n = 85)120 ± 14 (n = 100)*126 ± 15 (n = 26)*
Booking diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)69 ± 9 (n = 85)74 ± 11 (n = 100)*77 ± 12 (n = 26)*
A1C week 30 (%)6.0 ± 0.9 (n = 69)6.5 ± 1.3 (n = 32)
A1C end of pregnancy (%)6.0 ± 0.7 (n = 111)6.4 ± 1.3 (n = 28)
Current smoker313031
Ethnic group
    Maori382115
    Samoan323346
    Tongan162421
    Cook Island9138
    Other5910
Previous LSCS182036*
Labor induced22 (n = 91)69 (n = 119)*71 (n = 31)*
Delivery
    Elective cesarean41421
    Emergency cesarean192023
    Operative vaginal4310*
    Spontaneous726346
  • Data are means ± SD or percent, unless otherwise indicated.

  • *

    * P < 0.05 vs. control;

  • P < 0.05 type 2 diabetes vs. GDM. LSCS, lower-segment cesarean section.