Table 2—

Neonatal outcomes by maternal diabetes status

ControlGDMType 2 diabetes (prepregnancy)GDM*
Normal OGTT postnatallyIGT/IFG postnatallyType 2 diabetes postnatally
n9513839502136
Male (%)574838466247
Gestation (weeks)40.3 ± 1.438.6 ± 1.538.2 ± 1.238.9 ± 1.638.8 ± 1.038.3 ± 1.4
Birthweight (kg)3.6 ± 0.63.9 ± 1.53.6 ± 0.63.7 ± 0.54.0 ± 0.74.1 ± 0.6
Macrosomia (birth weight ≥4 kg)21 (22)54 (39)13 (33)14 (28)11 (52)18 (50)
Z score for birth weight−0.08 ± 1.10 (n = 90)0.94 ± 1.31 (n = 119)0.53 ± 1.14 (n = 30)1.26 ± 1.40 (n = 19)1.31 ± 1.4* (n = 29)
Length (cm)50.8 ± 2.150.9 ± 2.050.1 ± 2.450.5 ± 2.2 (n = 40)51.3 ± 2.2 (n = 19)51.4 ± 1.7 (n = 27)
Head circumference (cm)35.5 ± 1.7 (n = 62)35.8 ± 1.3 (n = 108)35.2 ± 1.9 (n = 28)35.5 ± 1.4 (n = 40)36.2 ± 1.3 (n = 19)36.1 ± 1.25 (n = 27)
Tricep thickness (cm)0.44 ± 0.1 (n = 61)0.50 ± 0.12 (n = 108)0.53 ± 0.13 (n = 28)0.46 ± 0.10 (n = 40)0.51 ± 0.13 (n = 19)0.55 ± 0.10 (n = 27)
Scapula thickness (cm)0.44 ± 0.1 (n = 61)0.56 ± 0.16 (n = 108)0.57 ± 0.19 (n = 28)0.49 ± 0.14 (n = 40)0.58 ± 0.20 (n = 19)0.63 ± 0.12 (n = 27)
Insulin (pmol/l)33 (18–62) (n = 92)67 (42–135) (n = 133)77 (42–143) (n = 36)57 (40–94)83 (31–162) (n = 20)101 (61–198) (n = 32)
Proinsulin (pmol/l)10 (8–13) (n = 93)14 (10–19) (n = 134)16 (10–26) (n = 38)13 (9–15) (n = 48)12 (10–16)19 (14–24) (n = 34)
32–33 split proinsulin (pmol/l)7.6 (5.6–15.6) (n = 93)27 (10–52) (n = 134)26 (13–70) (n = 38)21 (12–42) (n = 48)31 (8–50)42 (25–78) (n = 34)
Glucose (mmol/l)5.2 ± 0.9 (n = 91)5.4 ± 1.1 (n = 132)5.1 ± 1.4 (n = 37)5.3 ± 1.1 (n = 49)5.4 ± 1.1 (n = 20)5.3 ± 1.2
Leptin (ng/ml)13 (8–22) (n = 92)31 (17–58) (n = 134)39 (18–75) (n = 37)26 (17–39)38 (17–62)52 (29–78) (n = 33)
  • Data are means ± SD, median (interquartile range), n (%), or percent, unless otherwise indicated.

  • *

    * Results for participants with gestational diabetes subdivided by results of oral glucose tolerance after pregnancy. Postnatal OGTT results not available for 31 participants.

  • P < 0.05 vs. control.

  • Calculated for gestations 38–41 weeks. IFG, impaired fasting glucose; IGT, impaired glucose tolerance.