Table 1—

Baseline characteristics according to dairy foods comparing the highest quintile (Q5) to the lowest quintile (Q1) among 37,183 women

VariableTotal dairy intake
High-fat dairy intake
Low-fat dairy intake
Quintile 1Quintile 5Quintile 1Quintile 5Quintile 1Quintile 5
Age (year)54 ± 755 ± 756 ± 754 ± 754 ± 755 ± 7
BMI (kg/m2)25.8 ± 526 ± 525 ± 4.626.1 ± 5.325.9 ± 5.225.8 ± 4.8
Physical activity (kcal/week)856 ± 1,1641,095 ± 1,3451,114 ± 1,371896 ± 1,188786 ± 1,1361,145 ± 1,323
Current smokers (%)17.410.910.517.022.58.5
Alcohol intake (g/day)4.7 ± 94.1 ± 83.4 ± 75.4 ± 105.3 ± 10.53.5 ± 6.8
Family history of diabetes (%)25.224.425.423.625.224.7
Current postmenopausal hormone use (%)42.040.545.236.938.842.4
Hypercholesterolemia (%)30.926.536.124.027.628.4
History of hypertension (%)25.424.025.624.826.124.0
Dietary variables
Dietary fiber intake (g/day)*19.1 ± 718.2 ± 521.5 ± 716.9 ± 4.917.6 ± 6.319.1 ± 5.8
Total fat (g)*58.2 ± 1357.2 ± 11.750.4 ± 1264.3 ± 10.762.4 ± 1353.2 ± 10.2
Dietary glycemic load*171 ± 35.6161 ± 26.0180 ± 33.5156 ± 27.7165 ± 36.3167 ± 25.5
Dietary protein (g)*78.6 ± 16.484 ± 13.283.7 ± 16.577.5 ± 12.976.4 ± 15.986.2 ± 12.5
Dietary magnesium (mg)*307 ± 65340 ± 58349 ± 69302 ± 52292 ± 60.9355 ± 54.9
Dietary calcium (mg)*531 ± 1261,081 ± 292811 ± 325777 ± 255532 ± 1501,160 ± 253
Dietary vitamin D (IU)*163 ± 88320 ± 116261 ± 136217 ± 98.9155 ± 87354 ± 108
Processed meat (servings/day)0.08 ± 0.150.11 ± 0.20.05 ± 0.130.13 ± 0.210.10 ± 0.190.07 ± 0.15
Fruits and vegetables (servings/day)5.03 ± 3.27.0 ± 3.46.0 ± 3.56.3 ± 3.35.0 ± 3.17.0 ± 3.4
Whole grains (servings/day)1.05 ± 1.01.7 ± 1.31.5 ± 1.31.2 ± 1.30.96 ± 1.011.8 ± 1.4
Nuts (servings/day)0.08 ± 0.190.11 ± 0.260.07 ± 0.20.13 ± 0.260.10 ± 0.230.10 ± 0.24
Coffee (servings/day)1.8 ± 1.81.9 ± 1.91.6 ± 1.72.2 ± 1.92.0 ± 2.01.7 ± 1.8
  • Data are means ± SD unless otherwise indicated.

  • *

    * Total energy adjusted.

  • Glycemic load defined as an indicator of blood glucose induced by an individual’s total carbohydrate intake. Each unit of glycemic load represents the equivalent of 1 g carbohydrate from white bread.