Table 2—

RR (95% CI) of type 2 diabetes according to total dairy intake in the WHS, 1993–2004

Total dairy intake (daily serving)
Quintile 1 (<0.85)Quintile 2 (0.89–1.35)Quintile 3 (1.36–1.9)Quintile 4 (1.9–2.9)Quintile 5 (>2.9)P for trendRR per 1-serving/day increase
Cases of type 2 diabetes345329300323306
Person-years73,09671,69873,79373,41373,260
Age, treatment, calorie adjusted1.00.90 (0.78–1.05)075 (0.64–0.88)0.75 (0.64–0.88)0.66 (0.56–0.78)0.00010.93 (0.89–0.97)
Multivariate model 1*1.00.94 (0.81–1.10)0.85 (0.72–1.00)0.87 (0.74–1.02)0.79 (0.67–0.94)0.0070.96 (0.93–1.01)
Multivariate model 21.00.94 (0.80–1.10)0.85 (0.72–1.00)0.88 (0.74–1.03)0.80 (0.67–0.95)0.0110.97 (0.93–1.01)
Multivariate model 31.00.90 (0.76–1.01)0.79 (0.65–0.96)0.79 (0.64–0.99)0.68 (0.52–0.89)0.0060.96 (0.90–1.02)
  • Low-fat dairy foods: skim/lowfat milk, sherbet, yogurt, and cottage/ricotta cheese. High-fat dairy foods: whole milk, cream, butter, sour cream, ice cream, cream cheese, and other cheese. Total dairy foods: low-fat dairy foods + high-fat dairy foods except for butter. Age-adjusted models adjusted for total energy intake, randomized-treatment assignment, and age.

  • *

    * Multivariate model 1 additionally adjusted for family history of diabetes (yes/no), smoking status (never smoked, former smoker, or current smoker), BMI (continuous), hypercholesterolemia (yes/no), hypertension (yes/no), physical activity (quintiles of METs), hormones (past, current, or never), and alcohol consumption (rarely/never, 1–3 drinks/month, 1–6 drinks /week, or >1 drink/day).

  • Multivariate model 2 adjusted for all covariates in model 1 + dietary intakes (quintiles) of fibers, total fat, and dietary glycemic load.

  • Multivariate model 3 adjusted for covariates in model 2 + quintiles of dietary calcium, vitamin D, and magnesium.