Table 3—

RR (95% CI) of type 2 diabetes among men according to low-fat dairy foods vs. high-fat foods

VariablesP for trendRR per 1-serving/day increase*
Low-fat dairy foods≤0.270.28–0.640.70–1.071.13–2.00>2.00
    Cases/person-years364/69,958331/71,959273/68,377338/81,853295/73,003
    Age, calorie-adjusted1.00.85 (0.74–0.99)0.72 (0.61–0.84)0.70 (0.60–0.82)0.64 (0.54–0.75)<0.00010.88 (0.84–0.93)
    Multivariate model 1*1.00.93 (0.80–1.09)0.86 (0.73–1.01)0.84 (0.72–0.98)0.79 (0.67–0.93)0.0020.94 (0.89–0.99)
    Multivariate model 21.00.94 (0.81–1.10)0.87 (0.74–1.02)0.86 (0.74–1.02)0.82 (0.68–0.98)0.020.95 (0.90–1.01)
    Multivariate model 31.00.93 (0.79–1.09)0.82 (0.68–0.99)0.80 (0.65–0.99)0.69 (0.52–0.91)0.0070.92 (0.84–1.01)
High-fat dairy foods<0.200.21–0.490.50–0.7700.785–1.28>1.329
    Cases/person-years261/65,616309/77,027334/76,712338/72,868361/72,841
    Age, calorie-adjusted1.00.99 (0.84–1.16)1.03 (0.88–1.22)1.07 (0.91–1.26)1.08 (0.92–1.28)0.201.04 (1.00–1.08)
    Multivariate model 1*1.00.98 (0.83–1.16)0.99 (0.84–1.17)1.03 (0.87–1.23)1.05 (0.88–1.24)0.441.02 (0.97–1.06)
    Multivariate model 21.00.96 (0.81–1.14)0.96 (0.80–1.14)0.9 (0.82–1.18)0.97 (0.80–1.17)0.881.00 (0.95–1.04)
    Multivariate model 31.00.96 (0.81–1.14)0.97 (0.81–1.15)1.00 (0.83–1.19)0.99 (0.82–1.20)0.901.00 (0.96–1.05)
  • Age-adjusted models adjusted for total energy intake, randomized-treatment assignment, and age.

  • *

    * Multivariate model 1 additionally adjusted for family history of diabetes (yes/no), smoking status (never smoked, former smoker, or current smoker), BMI (continuous), hypercholesterolemia (yes/no), hypertension (yes/no), physical activity (quintiles of METs), hormones (past, current, or never), and alcohol consumption (rarely/never, 1–3 drinks/month, 1–6 drinks/week, or >1 drink/day).

  • Multivariate model 2 adjusted for all covariates in model 1 + dietary intakes (quintiles) of fibers, total fat, and dietary glycemic load.

  • Multivariate model 3 adjusted for covariates in model 2 + quintiles of dietary calcium, vitamin D, and magnesium.