Table 5—

Multivariate RR (95% CI) of type 2 diabetes according to total dairy food consumption, stratified by major risk factors

Total dairy intake (daily serving)
Cases (n)Quintile 1Quintile 2Quintile 3Quintile 4Quintile 5P for trend
BMI (kg/m2)
    <252091.01.16 (0.75–1.81)0.70 (0.41 1.20)0.66 (0.36–1.22)0.46 (0.22–1.00)0.02
    ≥251,3471.00.87 (0.72–1.05)0.79 (0.64–0.97)0.82 (0.65–1.03)0.70 (0.52–0.94)0.03
Family history of diabetes
    Yes7331.00.90 (0.69–1.17)0.96 (0.72–1.29)1.04 (0.75–1.44)0.82 (0.55–1.23)0.82
    No8701.00.95 (0.76–1.19)0.67 (0.51–0.87)0.64 (0.47–0.85)0.57 (0.39–0.83)0.0003
Physical activity
    High6081.00.81 (0.60–1.08)0.73 (0.53–1.01)0.67 (0.47–0.96)0.58 (0.37–0.91)0.02
    Low9711.00.97 (0.78 1.20)0.84 (0.65–1.07)0.90 (0.68–1.18)0.76 (0.54–1.07)0.14
  • Multivariate model adjusted for total energy intake, randomized-treatment assignment, age, family history of diabetes (yes/no), smoking status (never smoked, former smoker, or current smoker), BMI (continuous), hypercholesterolemia (yes/no), hypertension (yes/no), hormones (past, current, or never), physical activity (quintiles of METs), alcohol consumption (rarely/never, 1–3 drinks/month, 1–6 drinks/week, or >1 drink/day), dietary intakes (quintiles) of fibers, total fat, dietary glycemic load, dietary calcium, vitamin D, and magnesium.